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Chemometric Based Identification and Validation of Specific Chemical Markers for Geographical, Seasonal and Gender Variations in Tinospora cordifolia Stem using HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS Analysis.

ABSTRACT

Tinospora cordifolia is a widely distributed medicinal plant used in various traditional and commercial Ayurvedic formulations. Due to the wide use of this plant it is important to know the extent of variability in the metabolite profile resulting from geographical location, season and gender.To develop a statistical approach based on phytochemical markers for confident prediction of variations in metabolic profile and cytotoxicity due to geographical, seasonal and gender difference in T. cordifolia stem.A HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS method was used for the metabolite profiling of T. cordifolia stem. The data were analysed using chemometric methods including Student's t-test, ANOVA, FA/PCA and ROC curve analysis and validated for the identification of chemical variations. The bioactivity of selected samples was also tested using a cell cytotoxicity assay to assess the functional aspect of the phytochemical variability.The chemometric approach applied here identified marker ions for geographical locations (m/z 294.1139 and 445.2136), seasons (m/z 344.1482, 359.1501, and 373.1305) and gender (m/z 257.1380) with 100% statistical sensitivity and specificity. An in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation revealed that male T. cordifolia stem was the most effective in inhibiting the growth of cancerous cell lines.The developed and validated chemometric approach identified the analytical markers for phytochemical variations in unknown T. cordifolia stem samples from male or female plants and samples collected from different geographical locations and seasons. The results are supported by comparative cytotoxic activity data. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.