Six antimicrobial peptides designated dybowskins were isolated from the skin secretion of Rana dybowskii, an edible frog in Korea. Dybowskin-1 (FLIGMTHGLICLISRKC) and dybowskin-2 (FLIGMTQGLICLITRKC) were isoforms differing in only two amino acid residues at the 7th and 14th positions from the N-terminus, and they showed amino acid sequence similarities with ranalexin peptides. Dybowskin-3 (GLFDVVKGVLKGVGKNVAGSLLEQLKCKLSGGC), dybowskin-4 (VWPLGLVICKALKIC), dybowskin-5 (GLFSVVTGVLKAVGKNVAKNVGGSLLEQLKCKISGGC), and dybowskin-6 (FLPLLLAGLPLKLCFLFKKC) differed in both size and sequence, and they were, in terms of amino acid sequence similarities, related to brevinin-2, japonicin-2, esculentin-2, and brevinin-1 peptides, respectively. All the peptides presented in this paper contained Rana-box, the cyclic heptapeptide domain, which is conserved in other antimicrobial peptides derived from the genus Rana. All the dybowskin peptides showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC), 12.5 to >100 microg/ml) and against Candida albicans (MIC, 25 to >100 microg/ml). Especially, dybowskin-4 with valine at its N-terminus was the most abundant and showed the strongest antimicrobial activity among all the dybowskin peptides. This result indicates that the dybowskin peptides from R. dybowskii, whose main habitats are mountains or forests, have evolved differently from antimicrobial peptides isolated from other Korean frogs, whose habitats are plain fields.