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Sleep and Environmental Factors Affecting Glycemic Control in People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

ABSTRACT

Sleep and environmental factors both impact glycemic control in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This narrative article aims to review research within the past 5 years, focusing on chronotype, light, noise, and neighborhood disparities in relation to sleep in people with T2DM.Sleep quality and duration have been shown to impact glycemic control in patients with T2DM. Later chronotype can lead to poorer glycemic control due to disruption of circadian rhythms. Light exposure also has similar effects, likely due to its inherent influence on sleep quality. Environmental determinants, were associated with lower T2DM incidence, and noise and air pollution were associated with increased risks for T2DM.Findings were mixed; while most studies found that later chronotype, light/noise exposure, and neighborhood disadvantages were associated with poorer glycemic control in patients with T2DM, other environmental factors, such as green space, were not significantly associated with diabetes outcomes.