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Future directions: lung aging, inflammation, and human immunodeficiency virus.

ABSTRACT

Chronic lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and pulmonary hypertension (PH), are unusually prevalent among persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Often these disease states are identified at younger ages than would be expected in the general population. Recent epidemiologic, basic scientific, and cross-sectional clinical data have implicated immune dysfunction and cellular senescence as potential drivers of advanced presentations of age-related diseases in HIV-infected persons. This article describes how HIV-associated COPD and PH may fit into a paradigm of immunosenescence, and outlines the hypothesized associations among chronic HIV infection, immune dysfunction and senescence, and cardiopulmonary outcomes.