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Metabolic defects in multiple sclerosis.

ABSTRACT

Brain injuries in multiple sclerosis (MS) involve immunopathological, structural and metabolic defects on myelin sheath, oligodendrocytes (OLs), axons and neurons suggesting that different cellular mechanisms ultimately result in the formation of MS plaques, demyelination, inflammation and brain damage. Bioenergetics, oxygen and ion metabolism dominate the metabolic and biochemical pathways that maintain neuronal viability and impulse transmission which directly or indirectly point to mitochondrial integrity and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) availability indicating the involvement of mitochondria in the pathogenesis of MS. Loss of myelin proteins including myelin basic protein (MBP), proteolipid protein (PLP), myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoproetin (MOG), 2, 3,-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiestarase (CNPase); microglia and microphage activation, oligodendrocyte apoptosis as well as expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) and myeloperoxidase activities have been implicated in a subset of Balo's type and relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) lesions indicating the involvement of metabolic defects and oxidative stress in MS. Here, we provide an insighting review of defects in cellular metabolism including energy, oxygen and metal metabolism in MS as well as the relevance of animal models of MS in understanding the molecular, biochemical and cellular mechanisms of MS pathogenesis. Additionally, we also discussed the potential for mitochondrial targets and antioxidant protection for therapeutic benefits in MS.