Indexed on: 15 Jul '18Published on: 15 Jul '18Published in: International Journal of Obesity
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by hepatic steatosis, impaired insulin sensitivity, and chronic low-grade inflammation. Our previous studies indicated that zinc alpha2 glycoprotein (ZAG) alleviates palmitate (PA)-induced intracellular lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. This study is to further characterize the roles of ZAG on the development of hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance (IR), and inflammation. ZAG protein levels in the livers of NAFLD patients, high-fat diet (HFD)-induced or genetically (ob/ob) induced obese mice, and in PA-treated hepatocytes were determined by western blotting. C57BL/6J mice injected with an adenovirus expressing ZAG were fed HFD for indicated time to induce hepatic steatosis, IR, and inflammation, and then biomedical, histological, and metabolic analyses were conducted to identify pathologic alterations in these mice. The molecular mechanisms underlying ZAG-regulated hepatic steatosis were further explored and verified in mice and hepatocytes. ZAG expression was decreased in NAFLD patient liver biopsy samples, obese mice livers, and PA-treated hepatocytes. Simultaneously, ZAG overexpression alleviated intracellular lipid accumulation via upregulating adiponectin and lipolytic genes (FXR, PPARα, etc.) while downregulating lipogenic genes (SREBP-1c, LXR, etc.) in obese mice as well as in cultured hepatocytes. ZAG improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance via activation of IRS/AKT signaling. Moreover, ZAG significantly inhibited NF-ĸB/JNK signaling and thus resulting in suppression of obesity-associated inflammatory response in hepatocytes. Our results revealed that ZAG could protect against NAFLD by ameliorating hepatic steatosis, IR, and inflammation.