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Zeeman spectroscopy of excitons and hybridization of electronic states in few-layer WSe$_2$, MoSe$_2$ and MoTe$_2$

Research paper by Ashish Arora, Maciej Koperski, Artur Slobodeniuk, Karol Nogajewski, Robert Schmidt, Robert Schneider, Maciej R. Molas, Steffen Michaelis de Vasconcellos, Rudolf Bratschitsch, Marek Potemski

Indexed on: 09 Nov '18Published on: 09 Nov '18Published in: arXiv - Physics - Mesoscopic Systems and Quantum Hall Effect



Abstract

Monolayers and multilayers of semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) offer an ideal platform to explore valley-selective physics with promising applications in valleytronics and information processing. Here we manipulate the energetic degeneracy of the $\mathrm{K}^+$ and $\mathrm{K}^-$ valleys in few-layer TMDCs. We perform high-field magneto-reflectance spectroscopy on WSe$_2$, MoSe$_2$, and MoTe$_2$ crystals of thickness from monolayer to the bulk limit under magnetic fields up to 30 T applied perpendicular to the sample plane. Because of a strong spin-layer locking, the ground state A excitons exhibit a monolayer-like valley Zeeman splitting with a negative $g$-factor, whose magnitude increases monotonically when thinning the crystal down from bulk to a monolayer. Using the $\mathbf{k\cdot p}$ calculation, we demonstrate that the observed evolution of $g$-factors for different materials is well accounted for by hybridization of electronic states in the $\mathrm{K}^+$ and $\mathrm{K}^-$ valleys. The mixing of the valence and conduction band states induced by the interlayer interaction decreases the $g$-factor magnitude with an increasing layer number. The effect is the largest for MoTe$_2$, followed by MoSe$_2$, and smallest for WSe$_2$. Keywords: MoSe$_2$, WSe$_2$, MoTe$_2$, valley Zeeman splitting, transition metal dichalcogenides, excitons, magneto optics.