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Young adulthood body mass index, adult weight gain and breast cancer risk: the PROCAS Study (United Kingdom).

Research paper by Andrew G AG Renehan, Mary M Pegington, Michelle N MN Harvie, Matthew M Sperrin, Susan M SM Astley, Adam R AR Brentnall, Anthony A Howell, Jack J Cuzick, D D Gareth Evans

Indexed on: 24 Mar '20Published on: 24 Mar '20Published in: British Journal of Cancer



Abstract

We tested the hypothesis that body mass index (BMI) aged 20 years modifies the association of adult weight gain and breast cancer risk. We recruited women (aged 47-73 years) into the PROCAS (Predicting Risk Of Cancer At Screening; Manchester, UK: 2009-2013) Study. In 47,042 women, we determined BMI at baseline and (by recall) at age 20 years, and derived weight changes. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for new breast cancer using Cox models and explored relationships between BMI aged 20 years, subsequent weight changes and breast cancer risk. With median follow-up of 5.6 years, 1142 breast cancers (post-menopausal at entry: 829) occurred. Among post-menopausal women at entry, BMI aged 20 years was inversely associated [HR per SD: 0.87 (95% CI: 0.79-0.95)], while absolute weight gain was associated with breast cancer [HR per SD:1.23 (95% CI: 1.14-1.32)]. For post-menopausal women who had a recall BMI aged 20 years <23.4 kg/m (75th percentile), absolute weight gain was associated with breast cancer [HR per SD: 1.31 (95% CIs: 1.21-1.42)], but there were no associations for women with a recall BMI aged 20 years of >23.4 kg/m (P values <0.05). Adult weight gain increased post-menopausal breast cancer risk only among women who were <23.4 kg/m aged 20 years.