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Xenotransfusion of anemic cats with blood compatibility issues: pre‐ and posttransfusion laboratory diagnostic and crossmatching studies

Research paper by Catharina C. Euler, Karthik Raj, Keijiro Mizukami, Louise Murray, Chi‐Ya Chen, Andrew Mackin, Urs Giger

Indexed on: 01 Jun '16Published on: 31 May '16Published in: Veterinary Clinical Pathology



Abstract

Finding compatible feline blood donors can be challenging. Canine blood has been occasionally used when compatible feline blood was not available in emergency situations.The study goals were to describe the effects of xenotransfusion in 2 anemic cats receiving canine blood because of discordant blood types and acute transfusion reaction, respectively, and to report in vitro heterotyping and crossmatching results between canine and feline blood samples.Blood samples from patients and other cats and dogs were typed, crossmatched, and assessed for alloantibodies using gel, card, and immunochromatographic strip techniques.Cat 1 was found to have type AB blood. Cat 2, which experienced an acute transfusion reaction, had type A blood. Neither had detectable alloantibodies against feline RBC. Both cats transiently improved after transfusion with canine blood; however, acute intravascular hemolysis occurred and the PCV rapidly declined. Blood typing post xenotransfusion with DEA 1 strips revealed a positive control band that was absent in feline blood, thus allowing for the identification of transfused canine RBC. Longitudinal assessment revealed that canine RBC could no longer be detected 4 days after xenotransfusion.Major crossmatching (feline plasma with canine RBC) resulted in both positive and negative reactions, depending on the cat. Minor crossmatching results showed mostly incompatibility.While both cats survived xenotransfusion, the positive control band on the DEA 1 strip revealed that transfused canine RBC were short‐lived and intravascular hemolysis occurred. Crossmatch results between cats and dogs showed varied incompatibilities and may not predict transfusion reactions.