Widespread distribution of Xanthomonas perforans and limited presence of X. gardneri in Brazil

Research paper by E. R. Araújo, J. R. Costa, M. A. S. V. Ferreira, A. M. Quezado‐Duval

Indexed on: 12 May '16Published on: 11 May '16Published in: Plant Pathology


Tomato bacterial spot is caused by Xanthomonas euvesicatoria, X. vesicatoria, X. perforans and X. gardneri. In order to determine the distribution, frequency of occurrence, and diversity of these species in the Brazilian commercial tomato fields, a survey was conducted between 2009 and 2012. In this period, 204 strains were obtained from 33 counties (22 with processing tomatoes and 11 with fresh‐market tomatoes). Pathogenicity tests, BOX‐PCR, PCR with species‐specific primers, and sequence analysis of the avirulence gene avrXv3 were performed in order to identify the strains at species and race level. Xanthomonas perforans predominated among the strains (92%) and was present in most counties. In addition, this species was prevalent in most areas of both fresh‐market tomatoes (63.6% of counties surveyed) and processing tomatoes (95.4% of counties surveyed). Fifteen strains (7.5%) were identified as X. gardneri, which was found mostly in fresh‐market fields located at regions with altitude higher than 900 m, and only one strain of X. euvesicatoria (0.5%) was found in a processing tomato field. High genetic diversity was observed within X. perforans, with 137 BOX‐PCR haplotypes. Race T3 prevailed (97.5%), but reported here for the first time is the occurrence of five strains identified as race T4 in fresh‐market fields in the state of São Paulo. The race T4 phenotype of these strains resulted from the presence of an 859 bp insertion in the avirulence gene avrXv3. This insertion is related to amino acid sequences of a transposase found in X. gardneri, and to amino acid sequences of X. campestris.