Indexed on: 05 May '20Published on: 04 May '20Published in: Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN
TPK deficiency, also known as thiamine metabolism dysfunction syndrome 5, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of inborn error of metabolism caused by TPK1 gene mutation. Its clinical manifestation is highly variable, ranging from spontaneous remission to fatal metabolic crisis. Here, we describe two affected siblings in a Chinese family presenting with recurrent episodes of acute ataxia. Whole exome sequencing identified a homozygous missense variant c.382C > T (p.Leu128Phe) in the TPK gene, which is located in the thiamine binding domain and affects a highly conserved amino acid. Besides, a review of the 18 previously reported patients provides a better understanding of the clinical and genetic features of this disorder. TPK deficiency may be an under-diagnosed cause of acute encephalopathy and ataxia. Given the potential benefit of early intervention, TPK deficiency should be considered in patients with episodic encephalopathy or ataxia, especially those associated with lactic acidosis and α-ketoglutaric aciduria. Significant decreased TPP in the blood is a strong hint of the disease. WES (whole exome sequencing) can help to further identify the molecular diagnosis.