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VOC and carbonyl emissions from carpets: a comparative study using four types of environmental chambers.

Research paper by Athanasios A Katsoyiannis, Paolo P Leva, Dimitrios D Kotzias

Indexed on: 15 Sep '07Published on: 15 Sep '07Published in: Journal of Hazardous Materials



Abstract

Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and carbonyls from carpets of different type (wool, synthetic) over a time period of three days at 23 degrees C, at 45% relative humidity, 0.5 air change rate and a loading factor of 0.4 m(2) m(-3) were measured. The experiments were carried out at four different environmental chambers (volumes of 0.02/0.28/0.45/30 m(3)). For TVOCs, maximum concentrations up to 2300 microg m(-3) (for carpet with synthetic backing) were found. Aromatic compounds e.g. benzene, toluene, the xylenes and styrene are emitted in relatively low concentrations, while for 4-phenylcyclohexene and 2, 2-butoxyethoxy-ethanol concentrations up to 170 and 320 microg m(-3), respectively, were measured. In all experiments, emission rates reached the maximum value within few hours from the beginning of the experiment. The emission rates of TVOCs from the same type of carpet measured with various types of chambers (0.02/0.28/0.45/30 m(3)), exhibited differences of up to 75%. Chamber concentrations of carbonyls (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone and propanale) are of a few microg m(-3). Acetone and formaldehyde reach concentrations up to 15 and 10 microg m(-3), respectively.