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Vanadium stimulates human bronchial epithelial cells to produce heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor: a mitogen for lung fibroblasts.

Research paper by L L Zhang, A B AB Rice, K K Adler, P P Sannes, L L Martin, W W Gladwell, J S JS Koo, T E TE Gray, J C JC Bonner

Indexed on: 13 Feb '01Published on: 13 Feb '01Published in: American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology



Abstract

The bronchial epithelium is a potential source of growth factors that could mediate airway fibrosis during the progression of diseases such as asthma and chronic bronchitis. We report that conditioned medium (CM) from normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBECs) contains mitogenic activity for human lung fibroblasts that is blocked by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG1478 and by neutralizing antibodies raised against heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF). Neutralizing antibodies against other EGF-R ligands (EGF and transforming growth factor-alpha) or other antibodies against growth factors (platelet-derived growth factors, insulin-like growth factor-1) had no affect on the mitogenic activity of NHBEC-CM. HB-EGF messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in NHBEC was detected by reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction and Northern blot analysis. HB-EGF protein was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5), a fibrogenic metal associated with occupational asthma, caused a several-fold increase in HB-EGF mRNA expression and protein, whereas the inert metal titanium dioxide had no effect on HB-EGF expression. V2O5-induced HB-EGF mRNA expression was inhibited by the EGF-R tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG1478, the p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase inhibitor SB203580, and the MAP kinase kinase inhibitor PD98059. Finally, HB-EGF induced the production of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 by human lung fibroblasts and anti-FGF-2 antibody partially blocked the mitogenic activity of NHBEC-CM on fibroblasts. These data suggest that HB-EGF is a fibroblast mitogen produced by NHBECs and that induction of an FGF-2 autocrine loop in fibroblasts by HB-EGF accounts for part of this mitogenic activity.