Validation of reference genes of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus for the normalization of quantitative real-time PCR.

Research paper by Xing X Ye, Lili L Zhang, Haiyan H Dong, Yuanyuan Y Tian, Haihua H Lao, Junjie J Bai, Lingyun L Yu

Indexed on: 03 Apr '10Published on: 03 Apr '10Published in: Biotechnology Letters


Expression of four reference genes of grass carp, including beta-actin (ACTB), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 18S rRNA (18S) and elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1alpha), was studied in tissues of normal individuals and bacteria-infected individuals. EF1alpha had the most stable expressions followed by 18S rRNA then GAPDH; ACTB had the least stability. After being infected with bacteria, the grass carp showed minimal changes in expression levels of EF1alpha in the liver and head kidney, while ACTB had the most stable expressions in spleen but the least stable in liver. EF1alpha is thus the optimal reference gene in quantitative real-time PCR analysis to quantitate the expression levels of target genes in tissues of grass carp.