Indexed on: 25 Apr '19Published on: 19 Mar '19Published in: Journal of Peptide Science
Tyrocidines are a family of cyclic decapeptides produced by the soil bacterium, Brevibacillus parabrevis. These antibiotic peptides can be used to prevent infections in agriculture and food industry but also to prepare antimicrobial lozenges, creams, and dressings for medical applications. It has been observed that the tyrocidines interact with saccharides such as cellulose from their soil environment, as well as sugars in culture media and glycans in fungal cell walls. Here, we investigated the interactions of tyrocidines with glucose, sucrose, and cellotetraose (as cellulose model) in a quantitative fashion utilising CD and NMR spectroscopy. The CD and NMR spectra of tyrocidine A (TrcA) were analysed as a function of solvent composition, and the spectral properties agree with the formation of oligomeric structures that are governed by β-sheet secondary structures once the acetonitrile content of the solvent is increased. Saccharides seem to also induce TrcA spectral changes reverting those induced by organic solvents. The CD spectral changes of TrcA in the presence of glucose agree with new ordered H-bonding, possibly β-sheet structures. The amides involved in intramolecular H-bonding remained largely unaffected by the environmental changes. In contrast, amides exposed to the exterior and/or involved in TrcA intermolecular association show the largest H chemical shift changes. CD and NMR spectroscopic investigations correlated well with TrcA-glucose interactions characterized by a dissociation constant around 200 μM. Interestingly, the association of cellotetraose corresponds closely to the additive effect from four glucose moieties, while a much higher dissociation constant was observed for sucrose. Similar trends to TrcA for binding to the three saccharides were observed for the analogous tyrocidines, tyrocidine B, and tyrocidine C. These results therefore indicate that the tyrocidine interactions with the glucose monosaccharide unit are fairly specific and reversible. © 2019 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.