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Two distinct phases of virus-induced nuclear factor kappa B regulation enhance tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-mediated apoptosis in virus-infected cells.

Research paper by Penny P Clarke, Suzanne M SM Meintzer, Lisa A LA Moffitt, Kenneth L KL Tyler

Indexed on: 15 Mar '03Published on: 15 Mar '03Published in: Journal of Biological Chemistry



Abstract

Cellular transcription factors are often utilized by infecting viruses to promote viral growth and influence cell fate. We have previously shown that nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) is activated after reovirus infection and that this activation is required for virus-induced apoptosis. In this report we identify a second phase of reovirus-induced NF-kappaB regulation. We show that at later times post-infection NF-kappaB activation is blocked in reovirus-infected cells. This results in the termination of virus-induced NF-kappaB activity and the inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha and etoposide-induced NF-kappaB activation in infected cells. Reovirus-induced inhibition of NF-kappaB activation occurs by a mechanism that prevents IkappaBalpha degradation and that is blocked in the presence of the viral RNA synthesis inhibitor, ribavirin. Reovirus-induced apoptosis is mediated by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) in a variety of epithelial cell lines. Herein we show that ribavirin inhibits reovirus-induced apoptosis in TRAIL-resistant HEK293 cells and prevents the ability of reovirus infection to sensitize TRAIL-resistant cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, TRAIL-induced apoptosis is enhanced in HEK293 cells expressing IkappaBDeltaN2, which blocks NF-kappaB activation. These results indicate that the ability of reovirus to inhibit NF-kappaB activation sensitizes HEK293 cells to TRAIL and facilitates virus-induced apoptosis in TRAIL-resistant cells. Our findings demonstrate that two distinct phases of virus-induced NF-kappaB regulation are required to efficiently activate host cell apoptotic responses to reovirus infection.