Indexed on: 24 Mar '19Published on: 23 Mar '19Published in: PloS one
The reasonable delay time of millisecond-delay blasting using digital electronic detonators can significantly reduce the vibration effects induced by tunnel blasting. This study proposes a method for calculating the delay time for cut holes, easer holes and periphery holes, considering the rocks breaking effect as well as wave superposition theory. And then according to the actual layout diagram of the tunnel holes, the delay time calculation formulas of different holes are put forward. Then the delay times were calculated according to the formulas and applied in the field tests. The velocities, rocks breaking and wave superposition cancellation of the vibration using different delay times are analyzed with digital electronic detonators. Then the optimum delay times of different holes were obtained and applied to New Hongyan tunnel project. The velocity and frequency of the vibration with digital electronic detonators are analyzed, compared with non-electronic detonators. The effects of charge and delay time on the velocity and principal frequency of a blasting seismic wave are discussed. The results indicate that the delay time for the holes must be prioritized to achieve breaking effects in the rock with the simultaneous formation of a new free surface, next considering the wave superposition cancellation. When the delay time of cut holes was 5 ms, the rocks breaking effect and wave superposition cancellation effect both worked well. The velocity of the vibration induced by the cut holes blasting was about only 0.46-0.51 cm/s. When the delay time was 6 ms or much longer, the rocks breaking effect would fail. With regard to the easer holes and periphery holes, the optimum delay time of them were all 5ms. The vertical peak particle velocity was reduced from 2.974 cm/s to 0.901 cm/s with digital electronic detonators. Therefore, the velocity had decreased by 69.70% than non-electronic detonators, which was caused by reducing the single simultaneous explosive charge and setting optimum delay time. The proposed delay time calculation method is demonstrated to be sufficiently accurate and can thus be used as a guideline to reduce tunnel blasting vibrations.