Indexed on: 14 Sep '18Published on: 14 Sep '18Published in: Frontiers in pharmacology
Nrf2 (Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2 Related Factor 2) transcription factor not only regulates oxidative stress response, but also represses inflammation by regulating cytokines production and cross-talking with NF-κB signaling pathways. Nrf2 plays an essential role in liver injury induced by oxidative stress and inflammation. Triptriolide (T11) is a minor component of Hook F. (TwHF), which can be obtained by hydrolysis reaction of triptolide (T9). The major purpose of this study is to clarify the regulating effects of T11 on oxidative stress and inflammation and . LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were used to verify the regulating effects of T11 on oxidative stress (ROS and Nrf2 signaling pathway) and inflammatory cytokines production (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β). The antioxidant responsive element (ARE) luciferase assay was employed to evaluate Nrf2 activation effect of T11 in HEK-293T cells. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induced acute liver injury (ALI) in BALB/c mice were used to study the protective effects (ALT, AST, MDA, SOD, histopathology and neutrophils/macrophages filtration) and the underlying protection mechanisms of ALI amelioration (Nrf2 and NF-κB signaling pathway) of T11. Firstly, the results showed that T11 can not only effectively decrease the productions of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β), ROS and NO in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, but also further significantly increase the activity of Nrf2 in HEK-293T cells. Secondly, the results suggested that T11 could dramatically decrease the oxidative stress responses (SOD and MDA) and inflammation (histopathology, neutrophils/macrophages filtration, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β production) in LPS-induced ALI in BALB/c mice. Finally, the results implied that T11 could dramatically increase Nrf2 protein expression and decrease p-TAK1, p-IκBα and NF-κB protein expression both and In conclusion, our findings indicated that T11 could alleviate LPS induced oxidative stress and inflammation by regulating Nrf2 and NF-κB signaling pathways and , which offers a novel insights for the application of TwHF in clinical.