Quantcast

Transistors with a gate insulation layer having a channel depleting interfacial charge and related fabrication methods

Imported: 17 Feb '17 | Published: 23 Sep '14

USPTO - Utility Patents

Abstract

A metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MISFET) includes a SiC layer with source and drain regions of a first conductivity type spaced apart therein. A first gate insulation layer is on the SiC layer and has a net charge along an interface with the SiC layer that is the same polarity as majority carriers of the source region. A gate contact is on the first gate insulation layer over a channel region of the SiC layer between the source and drain regions. The net charge along the interface between the first gate insulation layer and the SiC layer may deplete majority carriers from an adjacent portion of the channel region between the source and drain regions in the SiC layer, which may increase the threshold voltage of the MISFET and/or increase the electron mobility therein.

Description

STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST

The present invention was made with support from the Department of the Army, contract number W911NF-04-2-0021. The Government has certain rights in this invention.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to microelectronic devices and more particularly to transistors, for example, metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MISFETs) and related fabrication processes.

BACKGROUND

Power semiconductor devices are widely used to regulate large current, high voltage, and/or high frequency signals. Modern power devices are generally fabricated from monocrystalline silicon semiconductor material. One widely used power device is the power Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET). In a power MOSFET, a control signal is supplied to a gate electrode that is separated from the semiconductor surface by an intervening silicon dioxide insulator. Current conduction occurs via transport of majority carriers, without the presence of minority carrier injection that is used in bipolar transistor operation.

MOSFETS can be formed on a silicon carbide (SiC) layer. Silicon carbide (SiC) has a combination of electrical and physical properties that make it attractive as a semiconductor material for high temperature, high voltage, high frequency and/or high power electronic circuits. These properties include a 3.2 eV bandgap, a 4 MV/cm electric field breakdown, a 4.9 W/cm-K thermal conductivity, and a 2.0×107 cm/s electron drift velocity.

Consequently, these properties may allow silicon carbide-based MOSFET power devices to operate at higher temperatures, higher power levels, higher frequencies (e.g., radio, S band, X band), and/or with lower specific on-resistance than silicon-based MOSFET power devices. A power MOSFET fabricated in silicon carbide is described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,506,421 to Palmour entitled “Power MOSFET in Silicon Carbide” and assigned to the assignee of the present invention.

Increasing the electron mobility of silicon carbide-based MOSFETs may improve their power and frequency operational characteristics. Electron mobility is the measurement of how rapidly an electron is accelerated to its saturation velocity in the presence of an electric field. Semiconductor materials which have a high electron mobility are typically preferred because more current can be driven with a lower field, resulting in faster response times when a field is applied.

SUMMARY

In accordance with some embodiments, a metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MISFET) includes a SiC layer with source and drain regions of a first conductivity type spaced apart therein. A first gate insulation layer is on the SiC layer and has a net charge along an interface with the SiC layer that is the same polarity as majority carriers of the source region. A gate contact is on the first gate insulation layer over a channel region of the SiC layer between the source and drain regions.

The net charge along the interface between the first gate insulation layer and the SiC layer may deplete majority carriers from an adjacent portion of the channel region between the source and drain regions in the SiC layer, which may increase the threshold voltage of the MISFET.

Fabrication of a metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MISFET) can include providing a SiC layer having source and drain regions of a first conductivity type spaced apart therein. A first gate insulation layer is formed on the SiC layer that has a net charge along an interface with the SiC layer that is the same polarity as majority carriers of the source region. A gate contact on the first gate insulation layer is provided over a channel region of the SiC layer between the source and drain regions.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS

The invention is described more fully herein after with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which embodiments of the invention are shown. This invention may, however, be embodied in many different forms and should not be construed as limited to the embodiments set forth herein. Rather, these embodiments are provided so that this disclosure will be thorough and complete, and will fully convey the scope of the invention to those skilled in the art. In the drawings, the size and relative sizes of layers and regions may be exaggerated for clarity. It will be understood that when an element or layer is referred to as being “on”, “connected to” or “coupled to” another element or layer, it can be directly on, connected or coupled to the other element or layer or intervening elements or layers may be present. In contrast, when an element is referred to as being “directly on,” “directly connected to” or “directly coupled to” another element or layer, there are no intervening elements or layers present. As used herein, the term “and/or” includes any and all combinations of one or more of the associated listed items. Like numbers refer to like elements throughout.

It will be understood that although the terms first and second are used herein to describe various regions, layers and/or sections, these regions, layers and/or sections should not be limited by these terms. These terms are only used to distinguish one region, layer or section from another region, layer or section. Thus, a first region, layer or section discussed below could be termed a second region, layer or section, and similarly, a second region, layer or section may be termed a first region, layer or section without departing from the teachings of the present invention.

Furthermore, relative terms, such as “lower” or “bottom” or “upper” or “top” or “lateral” or “vertical” may be used herein to describe one element's relationship to another elements as illustrated in the Figures. It will be understood that relative terms are intended to encompass different orientations of the device in addition to the orientation depicted in the Figures. For example, if the device in the Figures is turned over, elements described as being on the “lower” side of other elements would then be oriented on “upper” sides of the other elements. The exemplary term “lower”, can therefore, encompasses both an orientation of “lower” and “upper,” depending of the particular orientation of the figure. Similarly, if the device in one of the figures is turned over, elements described as “below” or “beneath” other elements would then be oriented “above” the other elements. The exemplary terms “below” or “beneath” can, therefore, encompass both an orientation of above and below.

Embodiments of the present invention are described herein with reference to cross-section illustrations that are schematic illustrations of idealized embodiments of the present invention. As such, variations from the shapes of the illustrations as a result, for example, of manufacturing techniques and/or tolerances, are to be expected. Thus, embodiments of the present invention should not be construed as limited to the particular shapes of regions illustrated herein but are to include deviations in shapes that result, for example, from manufacturing. For example, an implanted region illustrated as a rectangle will, typically, have rounded or curved features and/or a gradient of implant concentration at its edges rather than a binary change from implanted to non-implanted region. Likewise, a buried region formed by implantation may result in some implantation in the region between the buried region and the surface through which the implantation takes place. Thus, the regions illustrated in the figures are schematic in nature and their shapes are not intended to illustrate the precise shape of a region of a device and are not intended to limit the scope of the present invention.

The terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only and is not intended to be limiting of the invention. As used herein, the singular forms “a”, “an” and “the” are intended to include the plural forms as well, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. It will be further understood that the terms “comprises” and/or “comprising,” when used in this specification, specify the presence of stated features, integers, steps, operations, elements, and/or components, but do not preclude the presence or addition of one or more other features, integers, steps, operations, elements, components, and/or groups thereof.

Unless otherwise defined, all terms (including technical and scientific terms) used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention belongs. It will be further understood that terms, such as those defined in commonly used dictionaries, should be interpreted as having a meaning that is consistent with their meaning in the context of the relevant art and will not be interpreted in an idealized or overly formal sense unless expressly so defined herein.

Some embodiments of the present invention are directed toward MISFET devices and related processes for fabricating MISFET devices, and which may result in increasing the threshold voltage at which MISFET devices turn-on and/or increasing the electron mobility of MISFET devices.

FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view of a MISFET 100 that is configured in accordance with some embodiments of the present invention. Referring to FIG. 1, the MISFET 100 includes a SiC layer 110. The SiC layer 110 may, for example, be a 5×1015 cm−3 P-type C-face (carbon-face) 4H—SiC substrate. SiC substrates are available from Cree Inc., Durham, N.C. A n+ source region 112 and a n+drain region 114 are formed on the C-face of the SiC layer 110 and are spaced apart. A channel region extends between the source region 112 and the drain region 114. A gate contact 130 is aligned over the channel region and may partially overlap the source region 112 and the drain region 114. A gate insulating layer 120 separates the gate contact 130 from the SiC layer 110. A source contact 132 contacts the source region 112 and a drain contact 134 contacts the drain region 114. A body contact 136 is on an opposite surface of the SiC layer 110 from the gate contact 130. The source contact 132, the drain contact 134, and/or the body contact 136 may include nickel or another suitable metal. The MISFET 100 may be isolated from adjacent devices on the SiC layer 110 by isolation regions 140a-b (e.g., shallow trench isolation regions).

The threshold voltage at which the MISFET 100 turns-on may be increased by providing a gate insulation layer 120 on the SiC layer 110 that has a net charge (e.g., the negative charge symbols in FIG. 1) along an interface with the SiC layer 110 that is the same polarity as majority carriers of the source region 112. The net interfacial charge may thereby deplete charge carriers from the adjacent channel region and increase the threshold voltage of the MISFET 100.

The net charge can be created along the interface between a gate insulation layer 120 and a carbon face of the SiC layer 110. Some embodiments of the present invention may arise from the present realization that a negative charge can be generated by forming a silicon dioxide layer on a SiC layer, and that the net charge can be increased by increasing the amount of carbon atoms present along the crystal face of the SiC layer contacting the silicon dioxide layer. In particular, a silicon dioxide layer can be formed on a carbon face (e.g., substantially free of Si atoms along the face) SiC layer to provide a net charge that is sufficiently strong to deplete majority charge carriers from an adjacent channel region of the SiC layer.

The silicon dioxide gate insulation layer 120 may be formed by thermally oxidizing a surface of the SiC layer 110 and/or by depositing or otherwise providing a silicon dioxide layer on the channel region and heating the structure to form the interfacial charge therebetween. For example, the gate insulating layer 120 may be formed from silicon dioxide that is heated to react with the SiC layer to form the interfacial charge therebetween. In contrast, when the silicon dioxide gate insulation layer 120 is formed by oxidizing the SiC layer 110, a second gate insulating layer 120 may be formed from, for example, silicon nitride and/or silicon oxynitride on the silicon dioxide gate insulation layer 120 to increase the insulation between the gate contact 130 and the SiC layer 110. In some exemplary embodiments, a region along the interface between the gate insulation layer and the SiC layer that provides the net charge has a thickness no greater than 50 Å. These and other processes that may be used to form the a gate insulation layer having a net negative interfacial charge along the SiC layer 110 are further described below with regard to FIGS. 6-17.

FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of another MISFET 200 that is configured in accordance with some embodiments of the present invention. The MISFET 200 of FIG. 2 may be substantially the same as the MISFET 100 of FIG. 1 except for the addition of a doped channel region 116 that extends between the source region 112 and the drain region 114. Referring to FIG. 2, when the source region 112 and the drain region 114 are n+ regions, the doped channel region 116 can be n-type.

The electron mobility of the channel region 116 may be increased by increasing its dopant concentration and/or by increasing the channel thickness (vertical direction in FIG. 2), which can decrease its electrical resistance and correspondingly increase its current capacity. However, the level of increase in electron mobility that can be achieved through channel doping and/or increasing thickness of the channel region 116 can be constrained by a requirement for the MISFET 200 to turn off with a very low (preferably zero) drain leakage current when the voltage potential between the gate contact 130 and the source region 112 (VGS) is less than a defined threshold voltage.

The interface between the gate insulation layer 120 and the SiC layer 110 has a net charge that is the same polarity as majority carriers of the doped channel region 116, and biases charge carriers away from an adjacent portion of the doped channel region 116. Accordingly, in FIG. 2, the net negative charge (e.g., the negative charge symbols in FIG. 2) that has the same polarity as the majority charge carriers (e.g., electrons) in the doped channel region 116, and which, thereby, depletes the majority charge carriers (e.g., electrons) from at least an adjacent portion of the doped channel region 116 when the gate to source voltage (VGS) is zero. The doped channel region 116 may therefore be fabricated to have a higher n-type dopant concentration and/or to have a greater thickness so as to provide higher mobility in the doped channel region 116 and/or to provide increased channel current capacity while allowing the MISFET 200 to turn off when VGS is less than the threshold voltage. The net fixed charge provided by the SiO2 gate insulation layer 120 may alternatively or additionally be used to increase the threshold voltage of the MISFET 200.

The net negative charge per unit area may be regulated through the manufacturing processes to provide a value that is at least as high as a net charge generated by dopants in an adjacent unit area of the doped channel region 116. Thus, for example, a product of the doping concentration and thickness of the doped channel region 116 should be equal to or less than the amount of negative fixed charge per unit area provided by the SiO2 gate insulation layer 120, as defined by the following Equation 1:
N_channelX n_channel≦Ng.  (Equation 1)

In Equation 1, the term “N_channel” represents the n-type dopant concentration (e.g., cm−3) of the doped channel region 116, the term “n_channel” represents the thickness (e.g., cm) of the doped channel region 116, and the term “Ng” represents the negative fixed charge density (cm−2) provided by the SiO2 gate insulation layer 120.

In some embodiments, the doped channel region 116 may have a n-type dopant concentration from about 1×1016 cm−3 to about 1×1018 cm−3 and a thickness from about 0.1 μm to about 0.5×10−5 μm. Thus, according to Equation 1, the fixed negative charge provided by the SiO2 gate insulation layer 120 may be configured to generate a net charge density that is in a range from about −3×1011 cm−2 to about −6×1013 cm−2. The source and drain regions 112 and 114 each have a n-type dopant concentration that is greater than the n-type dopant concentration of the doped channel region 116, and may, for example, have a n-type dopant concentration from about 1×1019 cm−3 to about 1×1021 cm−3.

As used herein, “p-type”, “p+”, “n-type”, and “n+” refer to regions that are defined by higher carrier concentrations than are present in adjacent or other regions of the same or another layer or substrate. Although various embodiments are described herein in the context of n-type MISFETs that include n-type channel, n+ source, and n+ drain regions on a SiC layer, according to some other embodiments p-type MISFETs structures are provided that include p-type channel, p+ source, and p+ drain regions on a SiC layer. For p-type MISFETs, the gate insulation layer can be configured to provide a fixed positive charge along a surface facing a channel region that depletes charge carriers (e.g., holes) from at least an adjacent portion of the channel region when a zero voltage potential is present between the gate contact 130 and the source region 112.

Various exemplary operational characteristics that may be provided when the MISFET 200 shown in FIG. 2 is in an off state, in a partially-on state, and in a fully-on state will now be described with reference to FIGS. 3-5.

FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view of the MISFET 200 of FIG. 2 when zero voltage is present between the gate contact 130 and the source contact 132, and the gate contact 130, the drain contact 134, and the body contact 136 are electrically connected. The fixed negative charge along the interface between the gate insulation layer 120 and the SiC layer 110 causes the channel region 116′ to be effectively depleted of charge carriers and, therefore, pinched off. Consequently, very little (if any) current should flow through the drain contact 134.

FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view of the MISFET 200 when 12V (the threshold voltage for the MISFET 200) is applied between the gate contact 130 and the source contact 132 (“VGS”), and when the source contact 132 and the body contact 136 are electrically connected. Applying 12 VGS causes the depletion region 116′ to recede from a central region of the channel region 116 because many of the negative charges provided by the CSiO2 depletion layer 150 are mirrored in the body contact 136, which thereby forms a centrally located undepleted charge carrier region 116″. Consequently, a current can flow through the centrally located undepleted charge carrier region 116″ to the drain contact 134.

FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional view of the MISFET 200 when 25V is applied between the gate contact 130 and the source contact 132, and when the source contact 132 and the body contact 136 are electrically connected. The 25 VGS potential causes the undepleted charge carrier region 116′″ to extend upward to the surface of the channel region 116. Consequently, a much higher current can flow through the undepleted charge carrier region 116′″ to the drain contact 134.

FIGS. 6-12 are a sequence of cross-sectional views of processes that may be carried out to fabricate the MISFET 200 of FIG. 2 in accordance with some embodiments of the present invention. Referring to FIG. 6, a SiC layer 110 is provided. A n-type layer 610 is formed in the SiC layer 110 by implanting n-type dopants (e.g., nitrogen and/or phosphorous atoms) at a concentration from about 1×1016 cm−3 to about 1×1018 cm−3 and to a depth from about 0.1 μm to about 0.5×10−5 μm in the SiC layer 110.

Referring to FIG. 7, a mask pattern 700 is formed on a portion of the n-type layer 610 that will become the doped channel region 116. Further n-type dopants are implanted into the SiC layer 110 to form the n+ source region 112 and the n+ drain region 114 with an n-type dopant concentration from about 1×1019 cm−3 to about 1×1021 cm−3. The implanted dopants may be annealed at a temperature from about 1300° C. to about 2000° C. to form the channel region 116, the source region 112, and the drain region 114. The mask pattern 700 can be removed before or after the annealing.

The depth and concentration of the dopants that are implanted into the channel region 116 depend upon the quantity of fixed negative charge that will be provided by the subsequently formed SiO2 gate insulation layer 120. As explained above, a product of the doping concentration and thickness of the channel region 116 should be equal to or less than the amount of negative fixed charge provided along the interface between the gate insulation layer 120 and the SiC layer 110 in accordance with some embodiments.

Referring to FIG. 8, a silicon layer 800 is formed across the SiC layer 110 including the channel region 610, such as by depositing a 300 Å thick layer of amorphous silicon. Referring to FIG. 9, the silicon layer 800 is oxidized to form a preliminary silicon dioxide layer 902 and may also result in a small amount of oxidation of the C-terminated SiC layer 110, i.e. along a surface of the buried channel layer 610 in the SiC layer 110. The silicon layer 800 may, for example, be subjected to an oxidizing heat treatment in a dry oxygen ambient at 950° C. for 4.5 hours to form the preliminary silicon dioxide layer 902.

Referring to FIG. 10, the preliminary silicon dioxide layer 902 is subjected to an annealing heat treatment that anneals the preliminary silicon dioxide layer 902 to form an annealed silicon dioxide layer 1002 and that controls the amount of negative charge provided by the annealed SiO2 gate insulation layer 1004 along the interface to the SiC layer 110. The annealing heat treatment may, for example, be carried out in a nitric oxide ambient at a temperature of 1100° C. for 2 hours. The composition of the ambient atmosphere, the temperature, and the duration of the annealing heat treatment can be regulated to control the amount of negative charge provided by the annealed SiO2 gate insulation layer 1002.

Referring to FIG. 11, the annealed silicon dioxide layer 1002 is patterned, such as by a wet or dry etch process, to form the silicon dioxide gate insulation layer 120.

Referring to FIG. 12, a gate contact 130, a source contact 132, and a drain contact 134 are formed by, for example, depositing and then patterning or more layers of nickel or other suitable metal. A body contact 136 is formed on an opposite surface of the SiC layer 110 by, for example, depositing a layer of nickel or other suitable metal.

The resulting structure may be further annealed, such as at 850° C., to improve the ohmic contact between each of the contact structures 130, 132, 134, and 136 and the corresponding regions of the SiC layer 110. The temperature and duration of the annealing process can be regulated to provide a desired net negative charge that is generated along the interface between the SiO2 gate insulation layer 120 and the SiC layer 110. The net negative charge may be controlled to be at least as high as a net charge generated by dopants in an adjacent unit area of the doped channel region 116, which was described above for Equation 1 as being defined by the doping concentration and thickness of the channel region 116.

FIG. 13 is a graph that compares the drain current versus gate voltage for various C-face MISFETs, which are configured in accordance with some embodiments, to a Si terminated SiC MISFET (Si-face MISFET). Referring to FIG. 13, curve 1300 corresponds to a C-face MISFET device without a doped channel region (buried channel (BC)=0), which may correspond to the MISFET 100 of FIG. 1. Curve 1302 corresponds to a C-face MISFET device with a doped channel region having a charge concentration of 3×1011 cm−2, (buried channel (BC)=3×1011 cm−2), which may correspond to an embodiment of the MISFET 200 of FIG. 2. Curve 1304 corresponds to a C-face MISFET device with a doped channel region have a charge concentration of 6×1011 cm−2, which may correspond to another embodiment of the MISFET 200 of FIG. 2. Curve 1306 corresponds to a Si-face (silicon substrate layer) MISFET device without a doped channel region (BC=0).

Comparing the C-face MISFET of curve 1300 to the Si-face MISFET of curve 1306, it is observed that the negative charge in the SiO2 gate insulation layer of the C-face MISFET increased its threshold voltage (Vth about 5 V) compared to the Si-face MISFET (Vth about −0.8 V). Curves 1302 and 1304 illustrate that increasing the dopant concentration in the doped channel region causes a decrease in the threshold voltage of the Si-face MISFETs, although their threshold voltages remain above 0 V, and causes an increase in the drain current. The negative fixed charge in the SiO2 gate insulation layer can therefore be used to enable the C-face MISFET to be fabricated with a higher dopant concentration in the channel region to increase the channel current capacity while allowing the C-face MISFET to turn off when the gate to source voltage is zero. The negative charge in the SiO2 gate insulation layer may alternatively or additionally be used to increase the threshold voltage of the C-face MISFET.

FIGS. 14-19 are a sequence of cross-sectional views of some other processes that may be carried out to fabricate the MISFET 200 of FIG. 2. Referring to FIG. 14, a SiC layer 110 is provided. A n-type layer 610 is formed in the SiC layer 110 by implanting n-type dopants (e.g., nitrogen and/or phosphorous atoms) at a concentration from about 1×1016 cm−3 to about 1×1018 cm−3 and to a depth from about 0.1 μm to about 0.5×10−5 μm in the SiC layer 110.

Referring to FIG. 15, a mask pattern 700 is formed on a portion of the n-type layer 610 that will become the doped channel region 116. Further n-type dopants are implanted into the SiC layer 110 to form the n+ source region 112 and the n+ drain region 114 with an n-type dopant concentration from about 1×1019 cm−3 to about 1×1021 cm−3. The implanted dopants may be annealed at a temperature from about 1300° C. to about 2000° C. to form the channel region 116, the source region 112, and the drain region 114. The mask pattern 700 can be removed before or after the annealing. As explained above, a product of the doping concentration and thickness of the channel region 116 should be equal to or less than the amount of negative fixed charge provided by the CSiO2 depletion layer 150 in accordance with some embodiments.

Referring to FIG. 16, a surface of the SiC layer 110 is oxidized, including a surface of the channel region 610, to form a first SiO2 gate insulation layer 1604. The oxidation may be carried-out by heating the SiC layer 110 at a temperature range from about 800° C. to about 1200° C. The temperature and duration of the heating can be controlled to regulate the amount of negative charge generated by the first SiO2 gate insulation layer 1604.

Referring to FIG. 17, a second gate insulation layer 1700 is formed on the fist SiO2 gate insulation layer 1604. Referring to FIG. 18, the resulting structure may be subjected to an annealing heat treatment that anneals the first gate insulation layer 1604 to control the amount of negative charge provided along the interface between the first gate insulation layer 1804 and the SiC layer 110. The annealing heat treatment may, for example, be carried out in a nitric oxide ambient at a temperature of 1100° C. for 2 hours. The composition of the ambient atmosphere, the temperature, and the duration of the annealing heat treatment can be regulated to control the net negative charge provided along the interface between the first gate insulation layer 1804 and the SiC layer 110.

Referring to FIG. 19, the second gate insulation layer 1700 and the first gate insulation layer 1804 are patterned, such as by a wet or dry etch process, to form a multi-layered stacked gate insulation layer 120 between a subsequently formed gate contract and the SiC layer 110.

Other processes described above may be carried out on the resulting structure to provide a gate contact 130, a source contact 132, a drain contact 134, and a body contact 136, as describe above regarding FIGS. 1, 2, and 12, for example. The resulting structure may be further annealed, such as at 850° C., to improve the ohmic contact between each of the contact structures 130, 132, 134, and 136 and the corresponding regions of the SiC layer 110 and to further increase the negative charge along the interface between the gate insulation layer 120 and the SiC layer 110. The temperature and duration of the annealing process can be regulated to provide a desired net negative charge, where the net negative charge may be controlled to be at least as high as a net charge generated by dopants in an adjacent unit area of the doped channel region 116, which was describe above for Equation 1 as being defined by the doping concentration and thickness of the channel region 116.

In the drawings and specification, there have been disclosed typical preferred embodiments of the invention and, although specific terms are employed, they are used in a generic and descriptive sense only and not for purposes of limitation, the scope of the invention being set forth in the following claims.

Claims

1. A method of fabricating a metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MISFET), the method comprising:
providing a silicon carbide SiC layer having source and drain regions of a first conductivity type spaced apart therein, the SiC layer comprising a carbon (C)-face;
implanting first conductivity type impurity atoms between the spaced apart source and drain regions in the SiC layer to form a buried channel region;
providing a gate insulation layer directly on the C-face of the SiC layer between the source and drain regions, the gate insulation layer comprising silicon;
oxidizing the gate insulation layer to form a silicon dioxide layer that forms a distinct interface along the C-face of the SiC layer that generates a fixed net charge that is the same polarity as majority carriers of the source region and depletes majority charge carriers from an adjacent portion of the buried channel region, wherein oxidizing the gate insulation layer forms the distinct interface along the C-face of the SiC layer configured so that a product of a concentration of the first conductivity type impurity atoms in a per unit area and thickness of the buried channel region is equal to or less than an amount of fixed charge per unit area provided by the silicon dioxide layer; and
providing a gate contact on the silicon dioxide layer over the buried channel region of the SiC layer between the source and drain regions.
providing a silicon carbide SiC layer having source and drain regions of a first conductivity type spaced apart therein, the SiC layer comprising a carbon (C)-face;
implanting first conductivity type impurity atoms between the spaced apart source and drain regions in the SiC layer to form a buried channel region;
providing a gate insulation layer directly on the C-face of the SiC layer between the source and drain regions, the gate insulation layer comprising silicon;
oxidizing the gate insulation layer to form a silicon dioxide layer that forms a distinct interface along the C-face of the SiC layer that generates a fixed net charge that is the same polarity as majority carriers of the source region and depletes majority charge carriers from an adjacent portion of the buried channel region, wherein oxidizing the gate insulation layer forms the distinct interface along the C-face of the SiC layer configured so that a product of a concentration of the first conductivity type impurity atoms in a per unit area and thickness of the buried channel region is equal to or less than an amount of fixed charge per unit area provided by the silicon dioxide layer; and
providing a gate contact on the silicon dioxide layer over the buried channel region of the SiC layer between the source and drain regions.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein oxidizing the gate insulation layer comprises heating the gate insulation layer at a temperature range from about 800° C. to about 1200° C. to convert the gate insulation layer into the silicon dioxide layer having a net charge along an interface with the C-face of the SiC layer that is the same polarity as majority carriers of the source region.
3. The method of claim 2, further comprising:
heating the silicon dioxide layer in an nitric oxide atmosphere at a temperature range from about 800° C. to about 1200° C. to increase the net charge along the interface between the silicon dioxide layer and the C-face of the SiC layer.
heating the silicon dioxide layer in an nitric oxide atmosphere at a temperature range from about 800° C. to about 1200° C. to increase the net charge along the interface between the silicon dioxide layer and the C-face of the SiC layer.
4. The method of claim 3, further comprising:
regulating a duration of the heating of the silicon dioxide layer in the nitric oxide atmosphere to control the amount of net charge along the interface between the silicon dioxide layer and the C-face of the SiC layer to be at a level that depletes the majority charge carriers from the adjacent portion of the buried channel region when a voltage potential between the gate contact and the source region is zero.
regulating a duration of the heating of the silicon dioxide layer in the nitric oxide atmosphere to control the amount of net charge along the interface between the silicon dioxide layer and the C-face of the SiC layer to be at a level that depletes the majority charge carriers from the adjacent portion of the buried channel region when a voltage potential between the gate contact and the source region is zero.
5. The method of claim 1, wherein providing a first gate insulation layer on the SiC layer comprises oxidizing a surface region of the C-face of the SiC layer to form the first gate insulation layer therefrom before forming the gate contact.
6. The method of claim 5, further comprising:
forming a second gate insulation layer on the first gate insulation layer; and
forming the gate contact on the second gate insulation layer opposite to the first gate insulation layer.
forming a second gate insulation layer on the first gate insulation layer; and
forming the gate contact on the second gate insulation layer opposite to the first gate insulation layer.
7. The method of claim 6, wherein forming a second gate insulation layer comprises forming a silicon dioxide layer on the first gate insulation layer.
8. The method of claim 6, wherein forming a second gate insulation layer comprises forming a silicon nitride layer and/or a silicon oxynitride layer on the first gate insulation layer.
9. The method of claim 1, wherein implanting first conductivity type impurity atoms between the spaced apart source and drain regions in the SiC layer to form the buried channel region comprises implanting n-type dopants at a concentration from about 1×1016 cm−3 to about 1×1018 cm−3 and to a depth of from about 0.1 μm to about 0.5×10−5 μm in the SiC layer.
10. The method of claim 1, wherein oxidizing the gate insulation layer forms a distinct interface along the C-face of the SiC layer that generates a fixed net charge per unit area that is at least as high as a net charge generated by the first conductivity type impurity atoms in an adjacent unit area of the buried channel region when a voltage potential between the gate contact and the source region is zero.
11. The method of claim 1, further comprising, following the providing a gate contact on the silicon dioxide layer, annealing the MISFET to increase the fixed net charge along the C-face of the SiC layer.
12. The method of claim 1, wherein the carbon (C)-face of the SiC layer, on which the gate insulation layer is provided directly on, is substantially free of silicon atoms.