Indexed on: 01 Oct '15Published on: 01 Oct '15Published in: Plant Molecular Biology
Diploid gametes are usually applied to produce triploids of Populus [originating from first-division restitution (FDR), second-division restitution (SDR), and postmeiotic restitution (PMR) 2n eggs]. Three types of 2n gametes transmitted different parental heterozygosities in Populus. Failed spindle formation and no chromosomal separation to opposite poles during meiosis I mean that FDR 2n gametes carry nonsister chromatids that are potentially heterozygous. By contrast, SDR 2n gametes result from failed sister chromatid separation in meiosis II, and therefore, they carry sister chromatid that are potentially homozygous. Completely homozygous 2n gametes can arise from the PMR mechanism. The alteration of gene expression resulting from allopolyploidization is a prominent feature in plants. We compared gene expression in the full-sib progeny of three allotriploid Populus populations (triploid-F, triploid-S, and triploid-P) with that in its parent species, and their full-sib diploid F1 hybrid. Genome-wide expression level dominance was biased toward the maternal in the diploid F1 hybrid and three allotriploid populations, whereas our data indicated important, but different, effects of the transmission of different heterozygosity by 2n female gametes in the expression patterns of allopolyploids. Because of the higher level of heterozygosity, the triploids had higher rates of non-additive and transgressive expression patterns in the triploid-F than in triploid-S and triploid-P. Compared with diploid F1, about 30-fold more genes (251) were differently expressed in the triploid-F than in the triploid-S (9) and triploid-P (8), respectively. These findings indicate that hybridization and polyploidization have immediate and distinct effects on the large-scale patterns of gene expression, and different effects on the transmission of heterozygosity by three 2n female gametes.