Indexed on: 04 Jul '17Published on: 04 Jul '17Published in: PloS one
Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus) is a pathogen of infective endocarditis. It was observed previously that this bacterium survives longer in macrophages than other species and the phagocytic uptake by and survival in THP-1 macrophages is strain-dependent.The phagocytosis assay was performed with THP-1 macrophages. S. gallolyticus specific whole genome microarrays were used for transcriptome analysis.Better survival in macrophages was observed for UCN34, BAA-2069 and ATCC43143 than for DSM16831 and LMG17956. S. gallolyticus strains show high resistance to tested bactericidal agents (acid, lysozyme and hydrogen peroxide). S. gallolyticus stimulates significant lower cytokine gene expression and causes less lysis of macrophages compared to the control strain Staphylococcus aureus. S. gallolyticus reacts to oxidative burst with a higher gene expression of NADH oxidase initially at the early phase. Expression of genes involved in D-alanylation of teichoic acid, carbohydrate metabolism and transport systems were upregulated thereafter.S. gallolyticus is very resistant to bactericidal agents normally causing degradation of bacteria in phagolysosomes. Additionally, the D-alanylation of teichoic acid is an important factor for survival.