Indexed on: 07 Jan '14Published on: 07 Jan '14Published in: Clinical and vaccine immunology : CVI
Robust CD8(+) T cell responses are essential for immune protection against intracellular pathogens. Using parenteral administration of ovalbumin (OVA) protein as a model antigen, the effect of the Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist, CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) 1826, as an adjuvant delivered either topically, subcutaneously, or intramuscularly on antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell responses in a mouse model was evaluated. Topical CpG adjuvant increased the frequency of OVA-specific CD8(+) T cells in the peripheral blood and in the spleen. The more effective strategy to administer topical CpG adjuvant to enhance CD8(+) T cell responses was single-dose administration at the time of antigen injection with a prime-boost regimen. Topical CpG adjuvant conferred both rapid and long-lasting protection against systemic challenge with recombinant Listeria monocytogenes expressing the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope of OVA(257-264) (strain Lm-OVA) in a TLR9-dependent manner. Topical CpG adjuvant induced a higher proportion of CD8(+) effector memory T cells than parenteral administration of the adjuvant. Although traditional vaccination strategies involve coformulation of antigen and adjuvant, split administration using topical adjuvant is effective and has advantages of safety and flexibility. Split administration of topical CpG ODN 1826 with parenteral protein antigen is superior to other administration strategies in enhancing both acute and memory protective CD8(+) T cell immune responses to subcutaneous protein vaccines. This vaccination strategy induces rapid and persistent protective immune responses against the intracellular organism L. monocytogenes.