Imported: 13 Feb '17 | Published: 18 Jan '11

USPTO - Utility Patents

Tone synthesis apparatus synthesizes a tone of a wind instrument generated in response to vibration of a reed contacting a lip during a performance of the wind instrument. First arithmetic operation section solves a motion equation representative of behavior of the reed in an equilibrium state with external force acting on the lip and a second motion equation representative of behavior of the lip in the equilibrium state, to thereby calculate displacement y_{b}(x), y_{0}(x) of the lip and reed in the equilibrium state. Second arithmetic operation section solves a motion equation of coupled vibration of the lip and reed with calculation results of the first arithmetic operation section used as initial values of the displacement y_{b}(x), y_{0}(x) of the lip and reed, to thereby calculate the displacement y(x, t) of the reed. Tone is synthesized on the basis of the displacement y(x, t) calculated by the second arithmetic operation section.

The present invention relates to a technique for synthesizing tones of wind instruments that generate tones in response to vibration of a reed.

Heretofore, there have been proposed tone synthesis apparatus of a physical model type (i.e., physical model tone generators) for synthesizing tones by simulating the tone generating principles of musical instruments. Among such tone synthesis apparatus are techniques disclosed in R. T. Schumacher “Ab Initio Calculations of the Oscillations of a Clarinet”, ACUSTICA, 1981, Volume 48 No. 2, p. 75-p. 85 (hereinafter referred to as Non-patent Literature 1); and S. D. Sommerfeldt, W. J. Strong, “Simulation of a player-clarinet system”, Acoustical Society of America, 1988, 83 (5), p. 1908-p. 1918 (hereinafter referred to as Non-patent Literature 2). More specifically, Non-patent Literature 1 discloses a technique for simulating behavior of a clarinet by modeling a reed as a rigid air valve freely movable in its entirety, and Non-patent Literature 2 discloses a technique for simulating behavior of a clarinet by modeling a reed using a vibrating member in the form of an elongate plate fixed at one end (i.e., cantilevered vibrating beam).

However, although the reed of an actual wind instrument behaves complicatedly in response to actions of a human player's lip, the techniques disclosed in Non-patent Literatures 1 and 2 only simulate simple external actions on the reed. Thus, with these techniques, behavior of the reed of an actual wind instrument can not be reproduced faithfully, so that it has been difficult to synthesize tones sufficiently approximate to tones of an actual wind instrument.

In view of the foregoing, it is an object of the present invention to synthesize a tone faithfully reflecting therein action of a human player's lip.

In order to accomplish the above-mentioned object, the present invention provides an improved apparatus for synthesizing a tone of a wind instrument that is generated in response to vibration of a reed contacting a lip during blowing or performance of the wind instrument, which comprises: a first arithmetic operation section that solves a first motion equation representative of behavior of the reed in an equilibrium state with external force acting on the lip and a second motion equation representative of behavior of the lip in the equilibrium state, to thereby calculate displacement of the lip and displacement of the reed in the equilibrium state; a second arithmetic operation section that solves a motion equation of coupled vibration of the lip and the reed with calculation results of the first arithmetic operation section used as initial values of the displacement of the lip and the displacement of the reed, to thereby calculate the displacement of the reed; and a tone synthesis section that synthesizes a tone on the basis of the displacement calculated by the second arithmetic operation section.

Because the displacement of the reed is calculated on the basis of the motion equation of coupled vibration, the present invention can accurately simulate behavior of the reed as compared to the conventional construction where behavior of the reed is calculated on the basis of a motion equation that does not reflect therein. As a result, the present invention can faithfully reproduce tones of an actual wind instrument.

In a preferred embodiment, each time intensity of the external force acting on the lip changes, the first arithmetic operation section calculates displacement of the lip corresponding to the changed intensity of the external force acting on the basis of the first motion equation and the second motion equation, and the second arithmetic operation section calculates displacement of the reed by substituting the displacement of the lip, calculated by the first arithmetic operation section, into the motion equation of coupled vibration. Because such an arrangement allows any change of the external force acting on the lip to be reflected in the displacement of the reed, the present invention can synthesize a variety of tones corresponding to a performance or rendition style that varies pressing force on the lip.

In a preferred embodiment, the first motion equation and the second motion equation include a spring constant of the lip that changes in accordance with a position in the lip and intensity of pressing force acting on the lip. Such an arrangement can faithfully simulate the characteristic of an actual lip that a spring constant of the lip changes in accordance with the intensity of the pressing force and the position in the lip. As a result, the present invention can accurately synthesize tones of a wind instrument.

In a preferred embodiment, the first motion equation includes bending rigidity that changes in accordance with a position of the reed. Such an arrangement can faithfully simulate the characteristic of an actual reed that bending rigidity of the reed (product between a second moment of area and a Young's modulus of the reed M_{R}) changes in accordance with the position of the reed. As a result, the present invention can accurately synthesize tones of a wind instrument as compared to the conventional construction where the reed is simulated with a mere elongated plate-shaped vibrating member that does not change in sectional shape.

In a preferred embodiment, the second arithmetic operation section limits the displacement of the reed to within a predetermined range. Because the displacement of the reed calculated on the basis of the motion equation of coupled vibration is limited to within the predetermined range, it is possible to prevent simulation of a situation where the reed is displaced to outside a displacement range of an actual reed, so that tones of an actual wind instrument can be reproduced accurately. The range within which the displacement of the reed is limited is preferably set to a range from the bottom surface of the lip and a surface of the mouthpiece opposed to the bottom surface.

In a preferred embodiment, the motion equation of coupled vibration includes at least one of internal resistance of the lip that changes in accordance with a position in the lip and internal resistance of the reed that changes in accordance with a position in the reed. Such an arrangement can simulate a situation where the internal resistance of the lip and internal resistance of the reed change in accordance with the positions, and thus, the present invention can faithfully reproduce tones of an actual wind instrument as compared to the conventional construction where the internal resistance of the lip and the internal resistance of the reed are set at fixed values.

In a case where deformation of the lip and reed is relatively small, i.e. where the deformation is within an elasticity limit), influences imparted from pressing force, acting on the lip and reed, to the internal resistance of the lip and reed can be ignored. However, in a case where deformation of the lip and reed is great, i.e. where the deformation is outside the elasticity limit), the internal resistance of the lip and reed would also change in accordance with the intensity of the pressing force as well as positions in the lip and reed. Thus, in a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the motion equation of coupled vibration includes at least one of internal resistance of the lip that changes in accordance with a position in the lip and pressing force acting on the lip and internal resistance of the reed that changes in accordance with a position in the reed and pressing force acting on the reed. Such an arrangement can simulate a situation where the internal resistance of the lip and the internal resistance of the reed change in accordance with the intensity of the pressing force, and thus, the present invention can faithfully reproduce tones of an actual wind instrument as compared to the conventional construction where the internal resistance of the lip and the internal resistance of the reed are set at fixed values.

The tone synthesis apparatus of the present invention can be implemented not only by hardware electronic circuitry, such as DSPs (Digital Signal Processors) dedicated to individual processes, but also by a cooperation between a general-purpose arithmetic operation processing apparatus and a program. The program of the present invention is a program for synthesizing a tone of a wind instrument that is generated in response to vibration of a reed contacting a lip during blowing or performance of the wind instrument, which causes a computer to perform: a first arithmetic operation step of solving a first motion equation representative of behavior of the reed in an equilibrium state with external force acting on the lip and a motion equation representative of behavior of the lip in the equilibrium state, to thereby calculate displacement of the lip and displacement of the reed in the equilibrium state; a second arithmetic operation step of solving a motion equation of coupled vibration of the lip and the reed with calculation results of the first arithmetic operation step used as initial values of the displacement of the lip and the displacement of the reed, to thereby calculate the displacement of the reed; and a tone synthesis step of synthesizing a tone on the basis of the displacement calculated by the second arithmetic operation step. Such a program can achieve the same advantageous benefits as the tone synthesis apparatus of the present invention. Typically, the program of the present invention is provided to a user in a computer-readable storage medium and then installed into a computer, or delivered to a user via a communication network and then installed into a computer.

The following will describe embodiments of the present invention, but it should be appreciated that the present invention is not limited to the described embodiments and various modifications of the invention are possible without departing from the basic principles. The scope of the present invention is therefore to be determined solely by the appended claims.

FIG. 1 is a block diagram showing an example setup of a first embodiment of a tone synthesis apparatus of the present invention. This tone synthesis apparatus **100** is constructed to synthesize tones by simulating, through arithmetic operations, the tone generating principles of a single-reed wind instrument, such as a saxophone or clarinet. As shown in FIG. 1, the tone synthesis apparatus **100** is implemented by a computer system that comprises an arithmetic operation processing device **10**, a storage device **42** and a sounding device **46**.

The arithmetic operation processing device, such as a CPU (Central Processing Unit) **10**, executes programs, stored in the storage device **42**, to generate and output tone data representative of a time-varying waveform of a wind instrument (i.e., temporal variation of sound pressure). The storage device **42** stores therein programs for execution by the arithmetic operation processing device **10** and data for use by the arithmetic operation processing device **10**. Magnetic storage device, semiconductor storage device or other conventionally-known storage device may be employed as the storage device **42**.

The input device **44** includes a plurality of operating members operable by a user or human player. Via the input device **44**, the human player can input, to the arithmetic operation processing device **10**, various parameters to be used for tone synthesis. Input equipment, such as a keyboard and mouse, and musical-instrument type input equipment, such as MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) controller, for inputting information pertaining to a performance of a wind instrument is employable as the input device **44**.

The sounding device **46** radiates a sound wave corresponding to tone data output by the arithmetic operation processing device **10**. Although not particularly shown in FIG. 1, the tone synthesis apparatus in practice further includes a D/A converter for converting tone data into an analog tone signal, and an amplifier for amplifying and outputting such a tone signal.

The arithmetic operation processing device **10** functions also as a setting section **12** and a synthesis section **14**. In a modification, various functions of the arithmetic operation processing device **10** may be implemented distributively by a plurality of integrated circuits. Further, part of the functions of the processing device **10** may be implemented by dedicated circuitry (DSP) for tone synthesis.

The setting section **12** sets parameters necessary for tone synthesis. The synthesis section **14** generates tone data on the basis of the parameters set by the setting section **12**, and it includes a reed simulating section **31**, a tubular body simulating section **33** and a transmission simulating section **35**. The reed simulating section **31** simulates coupled vibration of the player's lip and the reed. The tubular body simulating section **33** simulates behavior of a tubular portion of the wind instrument from the mouthpiece to the bell (namely, tubular body portion other than the reed). The transmission simulating section **35** simulates impartment of transmission characteristics to radiated sounds from the bell and individual tone holes.

FIG. 2 is a conceptual diagram showing the reed and neighborhood thereof of the wind instrument which are to be simulated by the reed simulating section **31**. The reed M_{R }is a vibrating member of an elongated plate shape having one end fixed to the mouthpiece M_{P}. Let it be assumed here that X, Y and Z axes intersect with one another at an original point coinciding with a middle point, in a width direction, of a distal end of the reed M_{R}. The Z axis extends in a width direction of the reed M_{R}. The X axis intersects with the Z axis in the upper surface (i.e., surface opposed to the mouthpiece M_{P}) of the reed M_{R }when no external force is acting on the reed M_{R}. Further, the Y axis extends in a vertical (thickness) direction of the reed M_{R }to intersect with the X and Z axes.

FIG. 3 is a schematic exaggerated view of the reed M_{R }and neighborhood thereof, which are to be simulated by the reed simulating section **31**, taken in the Z direction, which is explanatory of how a human player's lip M_{L }contacts the reed M_{R }at the time of a performance of the wind instrument. As shown in FIG. 3, the reed simulating section **31** simulates a state where the human player presses the lip M_{L }against the reed M_{R }with teeth M_{T }during the performance of the wind instrument. The lip M_{L }contacts a portion of the reed M_{R }from a position x_{lip1 }(adjacent to the distal end of the reed M_{R}) to a position x_{lip2 }(adjacent to the base of the reed M_{R}) in the X direction. Further, the teeth M_{T }of the human player contact a portion of the lip M_{L }from a position x_{teeth1 }(adjacent to the distal end of the reed M_{R}) to a position x_{teeth2 }(adjacent to the base of the reed M_{R}) in the X direction, to thereby cause pressing force f_{lip}(x) to act uniformly on the reed M_{R}.

FIG. 4 is a block diagram showing functions of the reed simulating section **31**. In a left area of FIG. 4 are shown parameters set by the setting section **12** and then stored in the storage device **42**. The following lines describe meanings of the parameters.

First, parameters S_{tiff}(x), B_{reed}(x), A(x), μ_{reed}(x) and ρ_{reed}(x) pertaining to the reed M_{R }will be described. S_{tiff}(x) represents bending rigidity (N·m^{2}) of the reed M_{R }at a position x in the X direction. Namely, the bending rigidity S_{tiff}(x) corresponds to a product between a Young's modulus of the reed M_{R }and a second moment of area I(x) [m^{4}] of the reed M_{R }at the position x. As shown in FIG. 2, B_{reed}(x) represents a horizontal width [m] (i.e., dimension in the Z direction) at the position x, and A(x) is a sectional area (i.e., area in a Y-Z plane passing the position x) [m^{2}] of the reed M_{R }at the position x. In the illustrated example, the sectional shape of the reed M_{R }varies depending on where the position x in the X direction is. Thus, the second moment of area I(x), horizontal width B_{reed}(x) and sectional area A(x) of the reed M_{R }to be used in calculation of the bending rigidity S_{tiff}(x) are functions of the position x. Further, μ_{reed}(x) represents a distribution of internal resistance [(kg/sec)/m] of the reed M_{R}, and ρ_{reed}(x) represents a density [kg/m^{3}] of the reed M_{R}.

Next, parameters k_{lip}(x), d_{lip}(x), A(x), μ_{lip}(x) and m_{lip}(x) pertaining to the lip M_{L }will be described. k_{lip}(x) represents a distribution of spring constant [N/m^{2}], in the X direction, of the lip M_{L }(e.g., spring constant for a unit length, in the X direction, of the lip M_{L}). d_{lip}(x) represents a dimension in the Y direction (i.e., thickness) [m] of the lip M_{L }at the position x when no external force acts on the lip M_{L}. μ_{lip}(x) represents a distribution of internal resistance [kg/sec)/m] of the lip M_{L }at the position x. m_{lip}(x) represents a distribution of mass [kg/m], in the X direction, of the lip M_{L}. The distribution of spring constant k_{lip}(x), thickness d_{lip}(x), distribution of internal resistance μ_{lip}(x) and distribution of mass m_{lip}(x) vary depending on where the position x in the X direction is.

Further, in FIG. 4, P represents pressure (Pa) within the mouth cavity of the human player, and ρ air represents a density of air (kg/m^{3}) at normal temperature (e.g., 25° C.). H(x) represents a position, in the Y direction, on the surface of the mouthpiece M_{P }opposed to the reed M_{R}, as seen in FIG. 2; such a position H(x) will hereinafter be referred to as “facing position”. Once displacement y(x,t), in the Y direction, of the reed M_{R }reaches the facing position H(x), the upper surface of the reed M_{R }contacts the mouthpiece M_{P}; thus, the facing position H(x) corresponds to a limit value (i.e., lower limit value) of the displacement of the reed M_{R}. Further, Z_{c }represents characteristic impedance to an air flow at a starting point of a portion of the mouthpiece M_{P }that can be regarded as a tubular body (i.e., the base of the reed M_{R}).

As shown in FIG. 4, the reed simulating section **31** comprises first, second, third and fourth arithmetic operation sections **311**, **312**, **313** and **314**. The first arithmetic operation section **311** calculates displacement y_{0}(xf) of the reed M_{R }and displacement y_{b}(xf) of the bottom surface of the lip M_{L }when the lip M_{L }is in an equilibrium state with pressing force f_{lip}(xf) caused to statically act on a position xf, in the Y direction, of the lip M_{L}. The second arithmetic operation section **312** calculates displacement y(x,t) in the Y direction at a time t at each position x, in the X direction, of the reed M_{R }by solving a motion equation of coupled vibration between the lip M_{L }and the reed M_{R }using the displacement y_{0}(xf) and displacement y_{b}(xf), calculated by the first arithmetic operation section **311**, as initial displacement values (i.e., values when t=0) of the reed M_{R }and lip M_{L}. The third and fourth arithmetic operation sections **313** and **314** calculate pressure P_{OUT }of a sound wave to be output from the reed M_{R }to the tubular body portion (adjacent to the mouthpiece M_{P}) on the basis of the displacement y(x,t) of the reed M_{R}. Details of processing performed by the reed simulating section **31** will be discussed below.

Let's now consider an equilibrium state achieved by causing pressing force f_{lip}(xf) to act from the teeth M_{T }on a position x_{f }(x_{teeth1}≦x_{f}≦x_{teeth2}) of the human player's lip M_{L}, as shown in FIG. 3. Assuming that the reed M_{R }has been deformed in the Y direction is deformed in the Y direction by a distance d**1** and the lip M_{L }by a distance d**2** due to pressing force f_{lip}(xf), resilient force R**1** acting from the reed M_{R }on the lip M_{L }and resilient force R**2** acting from the lip M_{L }on the reed M_{R }can be expressed by the following mathematical expressions. Note that, although in reality the upper surface of the lip M_{L }contacts the lower surface of the reed M_{R}, FIG. 3 shows in a schematically simplified manner the upper surface of the lip M_{L }as positioned on the upper surface of the reed M_{R}.

From force balance at the contact point (position x_{f}) between the reed M_{R }and the lip M_{L}, R**1**−R**2**=0 is established, and

From force balance at the contact point (position x_{f}) between the lip M_{L }and the teeth M_{T}, F_{lip}(xf)=0 is established.

Further, from relationship between deformation and displacement of the reed M_{R}, d**1**=y_{0}(xf) is established, and

Further, from relationship between deformation and displacement of the lip M_{L}, d**2**={y_{b}(xf)−d_{lip}(xf)−y_{0}(xf)} is established.

From the individual mathematical expressions above, Motion Equations A1 and A2 can be derived.

The first arithmetic operation section **311** shown in FIG. 4 calculates displacement y_{b}(xf) of the bottom surface of the lip M_{L }and displacement y**0**(xf) of the reed M_{R }by solving Motion Equations A1 and A2 by substituting thereinto the bending rigidity S_{tiff}(xf), pressing force f_{lip}(xf), spring constant k_{lip}(xf) and thickness d_{lip}(xf). More specifically, the first arithmetic operation section **311** calculates displacement y**0**(xf) of the reed M_{R }from Motion Equation A1 using difference equation conversion, Gaussian elimination method or the like and then calculates displacement y_{b}(xf) of the lip M_{L }by substituting the calculated displacement y**0**(xf) into Motion Equation A2. How to solve Motion Equation A1 will be described later.

Dynamic characteristics when the lip M_{L }and reed M_{R }vibrate in a coupled manner can be expressed by Motion Equation B below.

The second arithmetic operation section **312** calculates displacement y(x, t) of the reed M_{R }by setting the displacement y**0**(xf), calculated by the first arithmetic operation section **311**, as an initial value of the displacement y(xt) of the reed M_{R }and substituting the displacement y_{b}(xf), calculated by the first arithmetic operation section **311**, into the displacement y_{b}(x) of the lip M_{L }in Motion Equation B. The right side of Equation B represents external force f_{ex}(x) acting on the position x, in the X direction, of the reed M_{R}. First, the second arithmetic operation section **312** calculates external force f_{ex}(x) by not only substituting into the right side of Motion Equation B the parameters b_{reed}(x), P, k_{lip}(x) and d_{lip}(x) set by the setting section **12** and pressure p(t) calculated by the fourth arithmetic operation section **314** but also substituting the displacement y**0**(xf) and displacement y_{b}(xf), calculated by the first arithmetic operation section **311**, into the right side of Motion Equation B as initial values of the displacement y(x, t) and displacement y_{b}(x). The pressure p(t) is pressure in a portion of a gap between the reed M_{R }and the mouthpiece M_{P }close to the distal end of the reed M_{R }(hereinafter referred to as “immediately-above-reed portion”). Calculation, by the fourth arithmetic operation section **314**, of the pressure p(t) will be described later.

Second, the second arithmetic operation section **312** calculates displacement y(x, t) of the reed M_{R }by substituting the parameters m_{lip}(x), A(x), μ_{reed}(x), S_{tiff}(x) and ρ reed, set by the setting section **12**, into the left side of Motion Equation B and setting the external force f_{ex}(x) calculated earlier into the right side of Motion Equation B. How to solve Motion Equation B will be described later.

The second term in the left side of Motion Equation B can be transformed as follows:

Therefore, Motion Equation B can be transformed into Equation B1 below.

Next, the time t is discretized as a product between an integer i and a predetermined value Δt (i.e., t=i·Δt), and then the time derivatives are substituted by the following differences.

Further, as shown in FIG. 5, the position x in the X direction is discretized in such a manner that the discretized positions are distributed at equal intervals Δx. Namely, the position x is discretized as a product between an integer n and a predetermined value Δx (i.e., x=n·Δx), and then the position derivatives are substituted by the following differences.

Note that “y(n, i)” above is an abbreviation of y(n·Δx, i·Δt). Thus, Mathematical Expression B1 above can be rewritten as Equation B2 below.

Note, however, that, in Equation B2 above, the individual terms are results of the following substitutions:

Note that “(n, i)” added to some letters in Equation B2 above is an abbreviation of y(n·Δx, i·Δt).

Next, Equation B3 approximately expressing Equation B2 above is derived by adding together (1) an equation obtained by multiplying the second term through to the fourth term in the left side of Equation B2 by ½ and (2) an equation obtained by substituting “i” in Equation B2 by (i+1) and then multiplying the second term through to the fourth term in the left side of Equation B2 by ½.

If the individual terms in Equation B3 are rearranged per type of the variable y, Equation B4 can be derived as follows:

Note that the individual terms in Equation B4 are terms previously substituted as follows:

*a*(1)_{n}*=−b*(1)=*E*_{reed}*I/Δx*^{4}/2

*a*(2)_{n}*=−b*(2)=*E*_{reed}*I″/Δx*^{2}/2−2*E*_{reed}*I′/Δx*^{3}/2−4*E*_{reed}*I/Δx*^{4}/2

*a*(3)_{n}=(*m*_{lip}(*n*)+ρ_{reed}*A*(*n*))/Δ*t*^{2}+(μ_{lip}(*n*)+μ_{reed}(*n*))/2Δ*t−E*_{reed}*I″/Δx*^{2}+3*E*_{reed}*I′/Δx*^{3}+3*E*_{reed}*I/Δx*^{4 }

*b*(3)_{n}=2(*m*_{lip}(*n*)+ρ_{reed}*A*(*n*))/Δ*t*^{2}*+E*_{reed}*I″/Δx*^{2}−3*E*_{reed}*I′/Δx*^{3}−3*E*_{reed}*I/Δx*^{4}*−k*_{lip}(*n*)

*a*(4)_{n}*=−b*(4)=*E*_{reed}*I″/Δx*^{2}/2−6*E*_{reed}*I′/Δx*^{3}/2−4*E*_{reed}*I/Δx*^{4}/2

*a*(5)_{n}*=−b*(5)=2*E*_{reed}*I′/Δx*^{2}/2*+E*_{reed}*I/Δx*^{4}/2

*c*(1)_{n}=−(*m*_{lip}(*n*)+ρ_{reed}*A*(*n*))^{2}+(μ_{lip}(*n*)+μ_{reed}(*n*))/2Δ*t *

Assuming that the reed M_{R }is fixed to the mouthpiece M_{P }at a position N as shown in FIG. 5, y(N, i) and y(N+1, i) become zero at a given time point i. Further, because acceleration (∂^{2}y(**0**, i)/∂x^{2}) and sheer force (∂^{3}y(**0**, i)/∂x^{3}) become zero at the distal end of the reed M_{R }where no external force acts (n=0), the following Equation B4_{—}1 and Equation B4_{—}2 are established:

Further, the following Equation B4_{—}3 is derived by adding together Equation B4_{—}1 and Equation B4_{—}2, and the following Equation B4_{—}4 is derived by subtracting Equation B4_{—}2 from three times of Equation B4_{—}3.

0·*y*(0,*i*)+*y*(1,*i*)−2*y*(2,*i*)+*y*(3,*i*)=0 B4_{—}3

*y*(0,*i*)+0·*y*(1,*i*)−3*y*(2,*i*)+2*y*(3,*i*)=0 B4_{—}4

Further, the following Equation B4_{—}5 is derived by substituting 2 into n in Equation B4 above.

*a*(1)_{2}*y*(0,*i+*1)+*a*(2)_{2}*y*(1,*i+*1)+*a*(3)_{2}*y*(2,*i+*1)+*a*(4)_{2}*y*(3,*i+*1)+*a*(5)_{n}*y*(4,*i+*1)=−{*a*(1)_{2}*y*(0,*i*)+*a*(2)_{2}*y*(1,*i*)−*b*(3)_{2}*y*(2,*i*)+*a*(4)_{2}*y*(3,*i*)+*a*(5)_{2}*y*(4,*i*)}+*c*(1)_{2}*y*(2,*i−*1)+*k*_{lip}(*n*)*y*_{b}(*n*)−*d*_{lip}(*n*))+(*p*(*i*)−*P*)*b*_{reed}(*n*) B4_{—}5

Further, the following Equation B5 is derived from an equation derived by substituting n=3 to N−1 into Equation B4 and from Equation B4_{—}3 and Equation B4_{—}4.

The Gaussian elimination method is suitable as a solution method for Equation B5 above. Because two rows and two columns in a left upper portion of Equation B5 above constitute a diagonal matrix by Equation B4_{—}3 and Equation B4_{—}4 being derived from Equation B4_{—}1 and Equation B4_{—}2, there can be achieved the benefit that the necessary quantity of arithmetic operations to be performed in the Gaussian elimination method can be reduced.

The second arithmetic operation section **312** calculates displacement y(x, t) of the reed M_{R }by solving Equation B5 using the displacement (y_{0}(xf), y_{b}(xf)), calculated by the first arithmetic operation section **311**, as initial values of the displacement y(x, y) and y_{b}(x). More specifically, the second arithmetic operation section **312** first calculates variables y(**0**, i+1) to y(N−1, i+1), representing future displacement, in the left side of Equation B5, by not only substituting variables y**0**(**0**)-y**0**(N−1) and y**0**(**2**) to y**0**(N−1), calculated by the first arithmetic operation section **311**, into both of the variables y**0**(**0**, i) to y**0**(N−1, i), representing current displacement, in the right side of Equation B5 and variables y(**2**, i−1) to y(N−1, i−1), representing previous displacement, in the right side of Equation B5 but also substituting the displacement y_{b}(xf), calculated by the first arithmetic operation section **311**, into y_{b}(**2**) to y_{b}(N−1) of Equation B5. Second, in order to advance the time by Δt, the second arithmetic operation section **312** calculates variables y(**0**, i+1) to y(N−1, i+1), representing future displacement in the left side of Equation B5, by solving Equation B5 by not only substituting variables y(**2**, i) to y(N−1, representing current displacement, into variables y(**2**, i−1) to y(N−1, i−1), representing previous displacement, in the right side of Equation B5, but also substituting variables y(**0**, i+1) to y(N−1, i+1), representing last-calculated future displacement, into variables y(**0**, i) to y(N−1, i), representing current displacement, in the right side of Equation B5. By repeating the above-mentioned arithmetic operations for calculating the displacement y(**0**, i+1) to y(N−1, i+1) at the time point (i+1) by solving Equation B5 by substituting thereinto the displacement y(**0**, i) to y(N−1, i) at the time point i, the second arithmetic operation section **312** calculates a change over time of the displacement y(x, t) at each position x of the reed M_{R}.

Further, each time the pressing force f_{lip}(x) set by the setting section **12** changes, the first arithmetic operation section **311** calculates new y_{0}(xf) and y_{b}(xf) by substituting the changed pressing force f_{lip}(x) into the pressing force f_{lip}(xf) in Motion Equations A1 and A2. Each time the first arithmetic operation section **311** calculates new displacement y_{b}(xf), the second arithmetic operation section **312** updates the numerical value to be substituted into y_{b}(**2**) to y_{b}(N−1) with the new displacement y_{b}(xf). With the aforementioned arrangements, it is possible to synthesize tones faithfully reproducing a style of performance or rendition where the pressing force f_{lip}(xf) is changed as desired. However, even when the first arithmetic operation section **311** has calculated new displacement y_{0}(xf) in response to a change of the pressing force f_{lip}(xf), the second arithmetic operation section **312** does not reflect the calculated new displacement y_{0}(xf) for the displacement y(**0**, i) to y(N−1, i) of Equation 5. Thus, with the aforementioned arrangements, it is possible to avoid any discontinuous change of the displacement y(x, t), so that auditorily natural tones can be generated.

As shown in FIG. 4, the second arithmetic operation section **312** includes a range limiting section **32** that limits the displacement y(x, t) of the reed M_{R }to within a predetermined range. The range limiting section **32** limits the displacement y(xt) of the reed M_{R}, calculated from Equation B5, to a range from the displacement y_{b}(xf) of the lip M_{L }(i.e., position of the bottom surface of the lip M_{L }which the teeth M_{T }contacts), calculated by the first arithmetic operation section **311**, to the facing position H(x) set by the setting section **12**. Namely, when the displacement y(x, t) of the reed M_{R }exceeds the displacement y_{b}(xf) in the case where the value of downward displacement, in the Y direction, of the reed M_{R }exceeds that of the lip M_{L }is considered to be positive), the range limiting section **32** changes the displacement y(x, t) to the displacement y_{b}(xf), but when the displacement y(x, t) of the reed M_{R }exceeds (falls below) the facing position H(x), the range limiting section **32** changes the displacement y(x, t) to the facing position H(x). With the aforementioned arrangements, it is possible to avoid simulation of an absurd situation where the reed M_{R }is located beneath the bottom surface of the lip M_{L }or above the mouthpiece M_{P}. The displacement y_{b}(x) of the bottom surface of the lip M_{L }has been described above as the upper limit value of the displacement y(x, t) of the reed M_{R}, but, because the lip M_{L }has a thickness, a given position closer to the facing position H(x) than the displacement y_{b}(x) by a predetermined value corresponding to the thickness of the lip M_{L }(e.g., a fixed value corresponding to a minimum value of the thickness of the lip M_{L}, or a variable value corresponding to a minimum value of the thickness of the lip M_{L }and variable in accordance with the pressing force f_{lip}(x)).

Note that the same method as used for the calculation, by the second arithmetic operation section **312**, of the displacement y(x, t) is used for the calculation, by the first arithmetic operation section **311**, of the displacement y**0**(x) (i.e., solution for Motion Equation A1), as outlined below. Motion Equation A1 is transformed into the following Difference Equation A1_A1 in a similar manner to the above-mentioned transformation from Motion Equation B1 to Equation B2.

If the individual terms in Equation A1_A1 are rearranged per type of the variable y, the following Equation A1_{—}2 can be derived:

*a*(1)_{n}*y*(*n−*2)+*a*(2)_{n}*y*(*n−*1)+*a*(3)_{n}*y*(*n*)+*a*(4)_{n}*y*(*n+*1)+*a*(5)_{n}*y*(*n+*2)=*f*_{lip}(*n*) A1_{—}2

Note, however, that the individual terms in Equation A1_{—}2 are ones previously substituted as follows:

*a*(1)_{n}*=E*_{reed}*I/Δx*^{4 }

*a*(2)_{n}*=E*_{reed}*I″/Δx*^{2}−2*E*_{reed}*I′/Δx*^{3}−4*E*_{reed}*I/Δx*^{4 }

*a*(3)_{n}=−2*E*_{reed}*I″/Δx*^{2}+6*E*_{reed}*I′/Δx*^{3}+6*E*_{reed}*I/Δx*^{4 }

*a*(4)_{n}*=E*_{reed}*I″/Δx*^{2}−6*E*_{reed}*I′/Δx*^{3}−4*E*_{reed}*I/Δx*^{4 }

*a*(5)_{n}=2*E*_{reed}*I′/Δx*^{3}*+E*_{reed}*I/Δx*^{4 }

Equation A1_{—}2 is transformed into the following Difference Equation A1_{—}3 in a similar manner to the above-mentioned transformation from Equation B4 to Equation B5.

The first arithmetic operation section **311** calculates displacement y**0**(x) (y(**0**) to y(N−1) in Equation A1_{—}3) using the Gaussian elimination method or the like. The foregoing has been a specific example of the solution for Motion Equation A1.

The third arithmetic operation section **313** of FIG. 4 calculates a volume flow rate f(t) in the immediately-above-reed portion on the basis of the parameters H(x), ρ_{air}, b_{reed}(x) and Z_{c }set by the setting section **12** and the displacement y(x, t) calculated by the second arithmetic operation section **312**. The third arithmetic operation section **313** in the instant embodiment calculates, as the volume flow rate f(t) of the immediately-above-reed portion, a difference value between a volume flow rate U(t) resulting from a pressure difference between the upper and lower surfaces of the reed M_{R}, and a volume flow rate u(t) resulting from displacement (y(x, t)) of various portions of the reed M_{R }(namely, f(t)=U(t)−u(t)).

The volume flow rate u(t) can be expressed by the following Equation C1, where “l_{eff }represents a distance from the distal end to the supporting point of the reed M_{R }(i.e., effective length of the reed M_{R}).

*u*(*t*)=∫_{0}^{l}^{eff}*b*_{reed}(*x*)*{dot over (y)}*(*x,t*)*dx* C1

The third arithmetic operation section **313** calculates the volume flow rate u(t) by substituting into Equation C1 the width B_{reed}(x) of the reed M_{R }set by the setting section **12** and a time derivative of the displacement y(x, t) (i.e., velocity of the reed M_{R}) calculated by the second arithmetic operation section **312** to perform numeric integration, such as the Simpson's method.

Further, the volume flow rate U(t) can be calculated in accordance with the following arithmetic operational sequence. First, the third arithmetic operation section **313** calculates a gap ξ(t) [m] between the mouthpiece M_{P }and the reed M_{R }at the distal end of the reed M_{R}. More specifically, the gap ξ(t) calculates, as the gap ξ(t), a difference between displacement y(**0**, t) of the distal end (x=0) of the reed M_{R }of the displacement y(x, t) of the reed M_{R}, calculated by the second arithmetic operation section **312**, and a facing position H(**0**) at the distal end (x=0) (i.e., gap ξ(t)=y(**0**, t)−H(**0**)).

Then, the third arithmetic operation section **313** calculates effective mass M(t) [Kg] of air passing through the gap between the mouthpiece M_{P }and the reed M_{R}. The effective mass M(t) can be expressed by the following equation C2:

where R(t) represents a relative ratio between the horizontal width B_{reed}(**0**) and the gap ξ(t) at the distal end of the reed M_{R }(i.e., ration R(t)=B_{reed}(**0**)/ξ(t)). Namely, the third arithmetic operation section **313** calculates effective mass M(t) by substituting into Equation C2 the horizontal width B_{reed}(**0**) and air density ρ air of the reed M_{R}, set by the setting section **12**, and the relative ratio R(t).

For the effective mass M(t) and volume flow rate U(t), the following Equation C3 is established:

where A represents a predetermined coefficient (e.g., A=0.0797). The following method is used in the calculation of the volume flow rate U(t) using Equation C3 above.

Equation C3 can be transformed into the following Equation C4 using Equation D1 and Equation D2 to be described later:

If the derivative in Equation C4 above is discretized with a backward difference, the following Equation C5 is derived. The third arithmetic operation section **313** calculates the volume flow rate U(t) from Equation C5 using a numerical solution of nonlinear equations (e.g., Newton-Raphson method).

The third arithmetic operation section **313** calculates, as a volume flow rate f(t), a difference between the volume flow rate U(t) and the volume flow rate (t) calculated in accordance with the above-described arithmetic operation sequence.

The fourth arithmetic operation section **314** of FIG. 4 calculates output wave pressure P_{OUT}(t) and sound pressure p(t) of the immediately-above-reed portion p(t). The output wave pressure P_{OUT}(t) is pressure of a sound wave traveling forward from the reed M_{R }through the interior of the tubular body portion (hereinafter referred to as “output wave”). Portion of the sound wave traveling from the reed M_{R }through the interior of the tubular body reflects off an open end (bell) of the wind instrument, and then that portion having traveled through the interior of the tubular body (hereinafter referred to as a “reflected wave”) travels backward through the interior of the tubular body to reach the interior of the mouthpiece M_{P}. Thus, the output wave pressure P_{OUT}(t) corresponds to a sum of pressure produced by the volume flow rate f(t) and pressure P_{IN }of the reflected wave traveling from the interior of the tubular body to the mouthpiece M_{P }(this pressure will be referred to as “reflected wave pressure P_{IN}”). The reflected wave pressure P_{IN }is calculated or arithmetically determined by the tubular body simulating section **33**.

Because the pressure produced by the volume flow rate f(t) is a product between the volume flow rate f(t) and the characteristic impedance Z_{c}, the output wave pressure P_{OUT}(t) can be expressed by the following equation D1:

*P*_{OUT}(*t*)=*Z*_{c}*·f*(*t*)+*P*_{IN}(*t*) D1

The fourth arithmetic operation section **314** calculates the output wave pressure P_{OUT}(t) by substituting into Equation D1 above the characteristic impedance Z_{c }set by the setting section **12**, volume flow rate f(t) calculated by the third arithmetic operation section **313** and reflected wave pressure P_{IN }calculated by the tubular body simulating section **33**.

Because the output wave pressure P_{OUT}(t) and reflected wave pressure P_{IN }act on the immediately-above-reed portion, the sound pressure p(t) of the immediately-above-reed portion p(t) can be expressed by the following Equation D2:

*P*(*t*)=*P*_{OUT}(*t*)+*P*_{IN}(*t*) D2

The fourth arithmetic operation section **314** calculates the pressure P(t) by substituting into Equation D2 above the output wave pressure P_{OUT}(t) calculated on the basis of Equation D1 and reflected wave pressure P_{IN}(t) calculated by the tubular body simulating section **33**. The pressure P(t) calculated by the fourth arithmetic operation section **314** is fed back to the calculation (Equation B) of the external force f_{ex}(x) by the second arithmetic operation section **312** and calculation (Equation C) of the volume flow rate U(t) by the third arithmetic operation section **313**.

Next, a description will be given about the functions of the tubular body simulating section **33**. As shown in FIG. 6, a tubular body section (extending from the mouthpiece to the bell) of an actual wind instrument can be approximated by a structure comprising k (k is a natural number) tubular unit portions U (U[**1**]-U[k]) connected together in series. Diameters and overall lengths of the individual tubular unit portions (namely, shape of each of the tubular body portions) are variably set. The tubular body simulating section **33** realizes behavior of a sound wave inside the tubular body portion by use of a physical model (hereinafter referred to as “tubular body model”) simulating the structure of FIG. 6.

FIG. 7 is a block diagram showing an example construction of the tubular body model used by the tubular body simulating section **33**. As shown in FIG. 7, the tubular body model includes: delay elements D_{A }(D_{A}[**1**]-D_{A}[k]) provided on a path r**1** in corresponding relation to the unit portions U; delay elements D_{B }(D_{B}[**1**]-D_{B}[k]) provided on a path r**2** in corresponding relation to the unit portions U, junctions or connecting sections J (J[**1**]-J[k−1]) provided between adjacent ones of the delay elements D_{A }and between adjacent ones of delay elements D_{B}; hole portions T_{H }(T_{H}[**1**]-T_{H}[k−1]) connected to some of the connecting sections J which are located at positions corresponding to tone holes of the wind instrument; and a bell section BL corresponding to the bell of the wind instrument. The path r**1** simulates behavior of an output wave traveling through the interior of the tubular body portion from the mouthpiece M_{P }to the bell (i.e., output wave pressure P_{OUT}(k, t)), while the path r**2** simulates behavior of an output wave traveling through the interior of the tubular body portion from the bell to the mouthpiece M_{P }(i.e., reflected wave pressure P_{IN}(k, t)).

The delay element DA[i] of an i (i=1−k)-th stage is an element for delaying output wave pressure P_{OUT}(i, t), supplied from a preceding stage, by a predetermined delay amount d_{A}[i]; for example, it is a shift register that differs in the number of stages in accordance with the delay amount d_{A}[i]. Output wave pressure P_{OUT}(t) calculated by the reed simulating section **31** (fourth arithmetic operation section **314**) is supplied, as an initial value P_{OUT}(**1**, t), to the delay element DA[**1**] of the first stage to be sequentially delayed by the delay elements D_{A}[**1**]-D_{A}[k] of the individual stages, and then reaches the bell section B_{L}. Namely, the delay element DA[i] simulates a propagation delay of the output wave pressure P_{OUT}(i, t) in the i-th unit portion U[i].

The bell section B_{L }simulates radiation of a sound wave from the bell of the wind instrument and reflection of the sound wave at the distal end of the bell. A shown in FIG. 8, the bell section B_{L }includes a filter section **62** and a multiplication section **64**. Output wave pressure P_{OUT}(k, t) output from the delay element D_{A}[k] of the k-th stage (i.e., last stage) on the path r**1** is supplied to the bell section B_{L}. The filter section **62** includes a low-pass filter portion **621** and a subtraction portion **622**. The low-pass filter portion **621** filters out components of a time waveform of the output wave pressure P_{OUT}(k, t), output from the k-th stage delay element D_{A}[k], which exceed a cutoff frequency f_{CB}. Multiplied value C_{B }of a multiplier in the low-pass filter portion **621** is a value that satisfies C_{B}=2π·f_{CB}·Δt. The subtraction portion **622** calculates radiated sound pressure P_{B}(t) by subtracting the output of the low-pass filter portion **621** from the output wave pressure P_{OUT}(k, t) of the k-th stage delay element D_{A}[k]. Namely, the subtraction portion **622** functions as a high-pass filter that filters out components of the output wave pressure P_{OUT}(k, t) which fall below the cutoff frequency f_{CB}. The radiated sound pressure P_{B}(t) is equivalent to pressure of the sound wave radiated from the bell.

The multiplication section **64** simulates reflection of a sound wave at a boundary between inner and outer sides of the bell of the wind instrument. Namely, the multiplication section **64** calculates reflected wave pressure P_{IN}(k, t) by multiplying the output from the low-pass filter portion **621** by a coefficient r_{B }and then outputs the calculated reflected wave pressure P_{IN}(k, t) to the path r**2** (more specifically, to the delay element D_{B}[k] of FIG. 7). Because the sound wave reverses its phase and causes some loss at the time of the reflection, the coefficient r_{B }is set at a negative number whose absolute value is, for example, smaller than one.

Similarly to the delay element DA[i], the delay element D_{B}[i] of FIG. 7 delays reflected wave pressure P_{IN}(i, t), input from a preceding stage (closer to the bell section B_{L}), by a predetermined delay amount d_{B}[i]. Namely, the delay element D_{B}[i] simulates a propagation delay of the reflected wave pressure P_{IN}(k, t) in the i-th unit portion U[i]. The reflected wave pressure P_{IN}(k, t) calculated by the bell section B_{L }are sequentially delayed by the delay elements D_{B}[k]-D_{B}[**1**], and the reflected wave pressure P_{IN}(**1**, t) output from the first-stage delay element D_{B}[**1**] is used, as reflected wave pressure P_{IN}(t), in arithmetic operations by the reed simulating section **31** (fourth arithmetic operation section **314**).

The connecting section (or junction) J simulates output wave diffusion and energy loss arising from inner diameter variation of the tubular body portion. The connecting section (or junction) J may be of either a two-port type as shown in (A) of FIG. 9 or a three-port type as shown in (B) of FIG. 9. The two-port type connecting section J[i] includes: a multiplication section **71** for multiplying output wave pressure P_{OUT}(i, t), supplied via the path r**1**, by a coefficient αi; a multiplication section **72** for multiplying reflected wave pressure P_{IN}(i+1, t), supplied via the path r**2**, by a coefficient β_{i}; an addition section **73** for adding together an output (αi·P_{OUT}(i, t)) from the multiplication section **71** and an output (βi·P_{IN}(i+, t)) from the multiplication section **72**; a subtraction section **74** for outputting a difference between the output from the addition section **73** and the output wave pressure P_{OUT}(i, t) to the path r**2** as new reflected wave pressure P_{IN}(i, t); and a subtraction section **75** for outputting a difference between the output from the addition section **73** and the reflected wave pressure P_{IN}(i+1, t) to the path r**1** as new output wave pressure P_{OUT}(i+1, t). Such a two-port type connecting section J[i] is employed where no tone hole portion T_{H }is connected, such as the connecting sections J[**1**] and J[**2**] shown in FIG. 7.

The three-port type connecting section J[i] shown in (B) of FIG. 9 is employed where a tone hole portion T_{H }is connected, such as the connecting sections J[**3**] and J[**4**] shown in FIG. 7. The three-port type connecting section J[i] includes, in addition to the aforementioned components of the two-port type connecting section J[i], a subtraction section **76** for outputting a difference between the output from the addition section **73** and sound pressure R_{i}(t) output from the i-th tone hole portion T_{H}[i] to the tone hole portion T_{H}[i] as sound pressure Q_{i}(t), and a multiplication section **77** for multiplying the sound pressure R_{i}(t) by a coefficient γi.

The tone hole portion T_{H}[i] simulates radiation of a sound wave from an i-th tone hole and reflection of the sound wave at the tone hole. As shown in FIG. 10, the tone hole portion T_{H}[i] includes delay elements D_{E}**1** and D_{E}**2**, a filter section **66** and a multiplication section **68**, similarly to the bell section BL of FIG. 8. The delay element D_{E}**1** delays sound pressure Q_{i}(t), supplied from the three-port connecting second J[i], by a delay amount dE**1**. The filter section **66** includes a low-pass filter section **661** for filtering out components of the delayed sound pressure Q_{i}(t) which exceed a cutoff frequency f_{CTH}, and a subtraction section (high-pass filter) **662** for calculating radiated sound pressure P_{Hi}(t) by subtracting the output of the low-pass filter section **661** from the sound pressure Q_{i}(t). Multiplicities value C_{TH }of a multiplier in the low-pass filter portion **661** is a value that satisfies C_{TH}=2π·f_{CTH}·Δt. The radiated sound pressure P_{Hi}(t) is equivalent to pressure of the sound wave radiated from the i-th tone hole. The multiplication section **68** calculates sound pressure R_{i}(t) by multiplying the output of the low-pass filter section **661** by a coefficient rH_{i }(e.g., positive or negative number whose absolute value is, for example, below one), in order to simulate a situation where phase inversion does not occur when the i-th tone hole is closed or where sound wave loss and phase inversion occur when the tone hole is opened. Namely, the multiplication section **68** simulates reflection of a sound wave at a boundary between inside and outside of the tone hole. The sound pressure R_{i}(t) is delayed by the delay element D_{E}**2** by a delay amount d_{E}**2** and then output to the three-port connecting section J[i] (multiplication section **77**). The foregoing has been a discussion of the functions of the tubular body simulating section **33**.

The transmission simulating section **35** of FIG. 1 simulates impartment of transmission characteristics to radiated sounds from the bell and individual tone holes of the wind instrument. As shown in FIG. 11, the transmission simulating section **35** includes a multiplication section **351** corresponding to the bell, k multiplication sections **353** corresponding to the unit portions U[**1**]-U[k], and an addition section **355** for adding together the outputs of the multiplication section **351** and k multiplication sections **353**. The multiplication section **351** multiplies sound pressure P_{B}(t), calculated by the bell section B_{L}, by a coefficient M_{B}. The i-th multiplication section **353** multiplies radiated sound pressure P_{Hi}(t), calculated by the tone hole portion T_{H}[i], by a coefficient M_{Hi}. The coefficient M_{Hi }is set at 0 when the i-th tone hole is closed or not provided in the wind instrument, but set at a predetermined value greater than 0, such as 1, when the i-th tone hole is opened. Thus, listening sound pressure P_{mix}(t) calculated by the addition section **355** represents sound pressure of a sound wave (listening sound) comprising a mixture of the radiated sound from the bell and radiated sound from a tone hole that is opened by a human player. The listening sound pressure P_{mix}(t) is output, as tone data, from the arithmetic operation processing device **10** to the sounding device **46**.

Next, a description will be given about the setting section **12**. As shown in FIG. 1, the setting section **12** includes a characteristic parameter conversion section **21** and a shape characteristic parameter conversion section **23**. The characteristic parameter conversion section **21** converts various parameters, pertaining to characteristics of the reed M_{R }and lip M_{L}, to parameters necessary for tone synthesis. The shape characteristic parameter conversion section **23** converts various parameters, pertaining to the shape and dimensions of the wind instrument, to parameters necessary for tone synthesis.

FIG. 12 is a block diagram showing specific functions of the characteristic parameter conversion section **21**. The user operates the input device **44** to input or designate various parameters, listed in a left region of FIG. 12, to the arithmetic operation processing device **10**.

Among such parameters designated by the user are physical property values pertaining to air (i.e., C_{air }and ρ_{air}), physical property values pertaining to the lip M_{L }(ρ_{lip}, E_{lip }and _{tan δ lip}), a dimension pertaining to a particular sample of the lip (hereinafter referred to as “lip sample”) (b_{lip}_{—}_{sample}), physical property values pertaining to the reed M_{R }(ρ_{reed}, E_{reed }and _{tan δ reed}), dimensions pertaining to a particular sample of the reed (hereinafter referred to as “reed sample”) (b_{reed}_{—}_{sample}, l_{reed}_{—}_{sample }and d_{reed}_{—}_{sample}), breath pressure P_{0}, and tone pitch f_{n}.

The parameter C_{air }represents the sound speed [m/sec] in air, and the parameter ρ_{air }represents the density [kg/m^{3}] of air. The breath pressure P_{0 }represents air pressure within the mouth cavity of the user or human player during a performance of the wind instrument. The tone pitch f_{n }is a numerical value indicative of a pitch of a tone to be synthesized by the arithmetic operation processing device **10**. Desired performance tone can be synthesized by appropriately changing the tone pitch f_{n}.

The physical property values pertaining to the lip M_{L }includes density ρ_{lip }[kg/m^{3}] of the lip M_{L}, Young's modulus E_{lip }[Pa] of the lip M_{L}, and loss coefficient _{tan δ lip }of the lip M_{L}. The physical property values pertaining to the lip sample include a width (i.e., dimension in the Z direction) b_{lip}_{—}_{sample }[m]. The lip sample is a structure made of a material which has generally the same physical characteristics as an actual human lip but is different from the actual human lip in that it is simplified in shape into a plain three-dimensional shape (rectangular parallelepiped in the illustrated example). Thus, the horizontal width (i.e., dimension in the Z direction) b_{lip}_{—}_{sample }is a fixed value that does not depend on the position in the X direction. In place of the aforementioned arrangement where the user individually inputs the physical property values and dimensions pertaining to the lip M_{L }and lip sample, the instant embodiment may employ an arrangement where values of the individual parameters (ρ_{lip}, E_{lip}, _{tan δ lip }and b_{lip}_{—}_{sample}) are stored in advance in the storage device **42** in association with a plurality of types of lips M_{L }so that the characteristic parameter conversion section **21** can acquire, from the storage device **42**, values of the parameters pertaining to a particular type of lip M_{L }selected by the user via the input device **42**.

The physical property values pertaining to the reed M_{R }include density ρ_{reed }[kg/m^{3}] of the reed M_{R}, Young's modulus E_{reed }[Pa] of the reed M_{R}, and loss coefficient _{tan δ reed }of the reed M_{R}. The physical property values pertaining to the reed sample include a horizontal width (i.e., dimension in the Z direction) b_{reed}_{—}_{sample }[m], a length (i.e., dimension in the X direction) l_{reed}_{—}_{sample }[m], and a thickness (i.e., dimension in the Y direction) d_{reed}_{—}_{sample }[m]. The reed sample is a structure made of a material which has generally the same physical characteristics as an actual reed but is different from the actual reed in that it is simplified in shape into a plain three-dimensional shape (rectangular parallelepiped in the illustrated example). Thus, the physical property values (b_{reed}_{—}_{sample}, l_{reed}_{—}_{sample }and d_{reed}_{—}_{sample}) pertaining to the reed are fixed values. In place of the aforementioned arrangement where the user individually inputs the physical property values and dimensions pertaining to the reed M_{R }and reed sample, the instant embodiment may employ an arrangement where values of the individual parameters (ρ_{reed}, E_{reed}, _{tan δ reed}, b_{reed}_{—}_{sample }and l_{reed}_{—}_{sample}) are stored in advance in the storage device **42** in association with a plurality of types of reeds M_{R }so that the characteristic parameter conversion section **21** can acquire, from the storage device **42**, values of the parameters pertaining to a particular type of reed M_{R }selected by the user via the input device **42**.

The characteristic impedance Z_{c }of the mouthpiece M_{P }of the wind instrument can be expressed by the following Mathematical

As shown in FIG. 12, the characteristic parameter conversion section **21** calculates the characteristic impedance Z_{c }by performing Mathematical Expression (a1) above with respect to the sound speed c_{air}, density ρ_{air }and diameter φin. Note that φ_{in }represents an inner diameter [m] of the mouthpiece M_{P }at the base of the reed M_{R }(i.e., portion of the reed M_{R }fixed to the mouthpiece M_{P}). For example, the inner diameter φ**1** of the first unit portion U[**1**] of the tubular body model is used as the diameter φin.

Further, a distribution of spring constant k_{lip}(x) [N/m^{2}] of the lip M_{L }can be expressed by the following Mathematical Expression (a2):

As shown in FIG. 12, the characteristic parameter conversion section **21** calculates a distribution of spring constant k_{lip}(x) [N/m^{2}] of the lip M_{L }with respect to the physical property values and dimensions (E_{lip}, b_{lip}(x) and d_{lip}(x)) of the lip M_{L}. In Mathematical Expression (a2) above, the horizontal width b_{lip}(x) and thickness d_{lip}(x) at the position x in the X direction can be determined from the tone pitch f_{n}, as will be described later.

Distribution of inner resistance μ_{lip}(x) of the lip M_{L }can be expressed by the following Mathematical Expression (a3), in which m_{lip}_{—}_{sample }represents a mass [kg] of the lip sample, l_{lip}_{—}_{sample }represents a length, in the X direction, of the lip sample, and k_{lip}_{—}_{sample }represents a distribution of spring constant [N/m] of the lip sample.

As shown in FIG. 12, the characteristic parameter conversion section **21** calculates the distribution of inner resistance μ_{lip}(x) of the lip M_{L }by performing arithmetic operations of Mathematical Expression (a3) with respect to the physical property values (ρ_{lip}, E_{lip }and _{tan δ lip}) of the lip M_{L }and dimensions (b_{lip}_{—}_{sample}) of the lip M_{L}. Note that, because the distribution of inner resistance μ_{lip}(x) is represented by the calculated value of Mathematical Expression (a3) for the lip sample of a simple parallelepiped shape, the distribution of inner resistance μ_{lip}(x) takes a fixed value that does not depend on the position x.

Distribution of inner resistance μ_{reed}(x) of the reed M_{R}, on the other hand, can be expressed by the following Mathematical Expression (a4), in which m_{reed}_{—}_{sample }represents a mass [kg] of the reed sample, I_{reed}_{—}_{sample }represents a second moment of area of the reed sample [m^{4}], and k_{reed}_{—}_{sample }represents a distribution of spring constant [N/m] of the reed sample.

As shown in FIG. 12, the characteristic parameter conversion section **21** calculates the distribution of inner resistance μ_{reed}(x) of the reed M_{R }by performing arithmetic operations of Mathematical Expression (a4) with respect to the physical property values (ρ_{reed}, E_{reed }and _{tan δ lip}) of the reed M_{R }and dimensions (b_{reed}_{—}_{sample}, d_{reed}_{—}_{sample }and l_{reed}_{—}_{sample}) of the reed sample. Note that, because the distribution of inner resistance μ_{reed}(x) is represented by the calculated value of Mathematical Expression (a4) for the reed sample of a simple parallelepiped shape, the distribution of inner resistance μ_{reed}(x) takes a fixed value that does not depend on the position x.

Further, as shown in FIG. 12, the characteristic parameter conversion section **21** determines a plurality of parameters (b_{lip}(x), d_{lip}(x), x_{teeth}**1**, x_{teeth}**2**, x_{lip}**1**, x_{lip}**2** and F_{lip}(x)) pertaining to an embouchure (i.e., state of the lip M_{L }during a performance), a coefficient for adjusting the breath pressure P_{0 }and a plurality of parameters (r_{H1}-r_{Hk}, r_{B}, M_{H1}-M_{Hk }and M_{B}) pertaining to fingering of the wind instrument on the basis of the tone pitch f_{n }through a key scale process (“KSC” in FIG. 12). The key scale process is a process for determining values of various parameters, corresponding to an actually designated tone pitch f_{n}, from a table where various numerical values the tone pitch f_{n }can take and values of the parameters are associated with each other.

The plurality of parameters pertaining to an embouchure include a horizontal width (i.e., dimension in the Z direction) b_{lip}(x) of the lip M_{L}, a thickness (i.e., dimension in the Y direction) d_{lip}(x) [m] of the lip M_{L }when no external force acts on the lip M_{L}, force F_{lip}(x) [N] with which the human player's teeth M_{T }press the lip M_{L}, and parameters (x_{lip}**1**, x_{lip}**2**, x_{teeth}**1** and x_{teeth}**2**) pertaining to positions of the human player's lip M_{L }and teeth M_{T }relative to the reed M_{R}.

Further, the characteristic parameter conversion section **21** determines a horizontal width b_{lip}(x) and thickness d_{lip}(x) of the lip M_{L }corresponding to the tone pitch f_{n }through the key scale process and calculates a distribution of mass m_{lip}(x) [kg/m] by multiplying a product between the width b_{lip}(x) and the thickness d_{lip}(x) by the density ρ_{lip }of the lip M_{L}. The horizontal width b_{lip}(x) and thickness d_{lip}(x) are also applied to the aforementioned calculation of the distribution of spring constant k_{lip}(x).

In order to discretize the individual positions x in the X direction as shown in FIG. 5, the characteristic parameter conversion section **21** arithmetically determines, as discretized positions (n_{lip}**1**, n_{lip}**2**), numerical values obtained by dividing the positions (x_{lip}**1**, x_{lip}**2**) by a distance Δx, and arithmetically determines, as discretized positions (n_{teeth}**1**, n_{teeth}**2**), numerical values obtained by dividing the positions (x_{teeth}**1**, x_{teeth}**2**) by the distance Δx. Further, the characteristic parameter conversion section **21** determines, as discretized positions (n_{lip}**1**, n_{lip}**2**), numerical values obtained by dividing the positions (x_{lip}**1**, x_{lip}**2**) by a distance Δx, and determines, as discretized positions (n_{teeth}**1**, n_{teeth}**2**), numerical values obtained by dividing the positions (x_{teeth}**1**, x_{teeth}**2**) by the distance Δx. Further, the characteristic parameter conversion section **21** determines, as a length l_{teeth }in the X direction of the teeth M_{T}, a difference between the positions x_{teeth}**1** and x_{teeth}**2**, and determines, as a length l_{lip }in the X direction of the lip M_{L}, a difference between the positions x_{lip}**1** and x_{lip}**2**. Then, the characteristic parameter conversion section **21** determines pressing force f_{lip}(x) [N/m] acting from the teeth M_{T }approximately on a unit length f_{lip}(x) [N/m] (f_{lip}(x)=F_{lip}(x)/l_{teeth}).

Further, the characteristic parameter conversion section **21** determines a pressure P within the mouth cavity of the human player by determining a coefficient p_{mul}, corresponding to the tone pitch f_{n}, through the key scale process and multiplying the breath pressure P_{0 }by the coefficient p_{mul}. The coefficient p_{mul }is a coefficient that varies in accordance with the tone pitch f_{n}. In the case of actual wind instruments, there is a tendency that a breath pressure range of a human player for sounding the wind instrument differs depending on the tone pitch; for example, the breath pressure range for a performance of high-pitch tones is greater than that that for a performance of lower-pitch tones. Because the coefficient p_{mul }to be multiplied to the breath pressure P_{0 }is a variable value depending on the tone pitch f_{n}, the instant embodiment can faithfully simulate the aforementioned characteristics of the wind instrument even where the breath pressure P_{0 }is selected independently of the tone pitch f_{n}.

Further, the characteristic parameter conversion section **21** determines, through the key scale process, coefficients r_{H1}-r_{Hk }to be used in the tone hole portions T_{H}[**1**]-T_{H}[k] of the tubular body simulating section **33** and in the bell section B_{L}, and coefficients M_{H1}-M_{Hk }and coefficient M_{B }to be used in the transmission simulating section **35**. For example, the coefficient M_{Hi }is set at zero when the first tone hole is closed during a performance of the tone pitch f_{n}, but set at a predetermined value greater than zero, such as one. Similarly, the coefficient r_{Hi }is set at a different value depending on whether the i-th tone hole is closed or opened.

FIG. 13 is a block diagram showing specific functions of the shape characteristic parameter conversion section **23**. As shown in FIG. 13, the shape characteristic parameter conversion section **23** is supplied with various parameters pertaining to the shapes and dimensions of the reed M_{R }and tubular body portion. Such parameters supplied to the shape characteristic parameter conversion section **23** include parameters (Li, φi, ti, ψi) of the shape of each unit portion U[i] constituting the tubular portion, thickness y_{d}(x, z) of the reed M_{R}, positions (z_{left}(x), z_{right}(x)) of left and right end portions, in the Z direction, and position y_{c}(x), in the Y direction, of an axis line functioning as a basis of the second moment of area I(x).

For the shape of the i-th unit portion U[i], the length Li and inner diameter φi of the unit portion U[i] and the depth ti and inner diameter i of the tone hole are designated, as shown in FIG. 6. First, the shape characteristic parameter conversion section **23** determines coefficients pertaining to the connecting section J[i] (i.e., coefficients α**1** and β**1** for the two-port type connecting section, but coefficients α**1**, β**1** and γ**1** for the three-port type connecting section) from the aforementioned coefficients. Second, the shape characteristic parameter conversion section **23** determines a delay amount d_{A}[i] of the delay element D_{A}[i] and delay amount d_{B}[i] of the delay element D_{B}[i] on the basis of the length Li of the unit portion U[i]. In addition to the aforementioned parameters, the shape characteristic parameter conversion section **23** may variably set a cut-off frequency f_{CB }of the bell section B_{L }and a cut-off frequency f_{CTH }and delay amount (d_{E1}, d_{E2}) of the tone hole portion T_{H}[i].

Third, the shape characteristic parameter conversion section **23** calculates a horizontal width B_{reed}(x) of the reed M_{R }by substituting the positions (z_{left}(x), z_{right}(x)) of the left and right end portions of the reed M_{R }into the following equation (b1):

*B*_{reed}(*x*)=*z*_{right}(*x*)−*z*_{left}(*x*) (b1)

Fourth, the shape characteristic parameter conversion section **23** calculates a sectional area A(x) of the reed M_{R }at the position x by integrating the thickness y_{d}(x, z) over a region from the left end position z_{left}(x) to the right end position z_{right}(x) of the reed M_{R}, as represented by the following equation (b2):

Fifth, the shape characteristic parameter conversion section **23** calculates a second moment of area I(x) pertaining to the axial line of the position y_{c}(x) by the following Equation (b3):

*I*(*x*)=∫(*y*_{d}(*x,z*)−*y*_{c}(*x*))^{2}*dA* (b3)

In the instant embodiment, as set forth above, the displacement y(x, t) of the reed M_{R }is calculated on the basis of Motion Equation B that expresses coupled vibration of the reed M_{R }and lip M_{L}. Thus, the instant embodiment can faithfully simulate the behavior of the reed M_{R }as compared to the technique of Non-patent Literature 1 which models a reed as a rigid air valve freely movable in its entirety and the technique of Non-patent Literature 2 which models a reed using a vibrating member in the form of an elongate plate. Further, because, each time the pressing force f_{lip}(x) acting from the lip M_{L }on the reed M_{R }is changed, the displacement y_{b}(x) of the lip M_{L }in Motion Equation B is updated with a result calculated from the changed pressing force f_{lip}(x) on the basis of Motion Equation A1 and Motion Equation B, the instant embodiment can faithfully simulate a rendition style which changes the pressing force f_{lip}(x). Because the displacement y(x, t) of the reed M_{R }in Motion Equation B is maintained even when the pressing force f_{lip}(x) is changed, the instant embodiment can effectively minimize an uncomfortable feeling of a tone arising from a discontinuous change of the displacement y(x, t).

Next, a description will be given about a second embodiment of the present invention. Whereas the first embodiment has been described above in relation to the case where the spring constant k_{lip}(x) does not depend on the pressing force f_{lip}(x) from the teeth M_{T}, the second embodiment uses a spring constant k_{lip}(x) (x, f_{lip}(x)) that depends on the pressing force f_{lip}(x). In the following description of the second and other embodiments, similar elements to those in the first embodiment are indicated by the same reference numerals and characters as used for the first embodiment and description of these similar elements are omitted here as necessary to avoid unnecessary duplication.

Relationship between the spring constant k_{lip}(x) (x, f_{lip}(x)) of the lip M_{L }and the pressing force f_{lip}(x) is determined through actual measurement. FIG. 14 is a diagram explanatory of how the spring constant k_{lip}(x) (x, f_{lip}(x)) is measured. As shown in FIG. 14, an outer surface of a test piece **82** placed on a working table **80** is pressed by a pressing member **84**. The test piece **82** is an elastic member having substantially the same elastic characteristic as the lip M_{L}. The pressing member **84** presses only part of the surface of the test piece **82** in generally the same manner as where the teeth M_{T }of the human player presses the lip M_{L}. Operation for measuring an amount of deformation of the test piece **82** to determine a spring constant k_{lip}(x) (x, f_{lip}(x)) is repeated while varying the intensity of the pressing force f_{lip}(x) and changing the position x to be pressed by the pressing member **84**. Through the aforementioned test, the relationship between the spring constant k_{lip}(x) (x, f_{lip}(x)) of the lip M_{L }and the pressing force f_{lip}(x) is measured per position x.

FIG. 15 is a graph showing relationship between the pressing force f_{lip}(x) and the spring constant k_{lip}(x) (x, f_{lip}(x)) observed when particular positions x of the test piece **82** were pressed by the pressing member **84**. As shown in FIG. 15, the spring constant k_{lip}(x) (x, f_{lip}(x)) of the test piece **82** varies according to the intensity of the pressing force f_{lip}(x). Namely, the spring constant k_{lip}(x) (x, f_{lip}(x)) increases as the intensity of the pressing force f_{lip}(x) increases.

Upon completion of the aforementioned measurement, a function, such as a spline function, approximating the relationship between the pressing force f_{lip}(x) and the spring constant k_{lip}(x) (x, f_{lip}(x)) is determined for each of a plurality of positions x. Further, a function (hereinafter referred to as “resiliency function”) defining relationship among the position x, on which the pressing force f_{lip}(x) acts, the intensity of the pressing force f_{lip}(x) and the spring constant k_{lip}(x) (x, f_{lip}(x)) is determined for each of a plurality of types of lips M_{L }by the aforementioned operations being repeated for a plurality of test pieces **82** differing from one another in physical property and dimension. Each of the thus-determined resiliency functions is stored into the storage device **42** of the tone synthesis apparatus **100**.

The user selects any one of the plurality of types of lips M_{L }by operating the input device **44**. The characteristic parameter conversion section **21** of FIG. 1 acquires, from the storage device **42**, the resiliency function corresponding to the user-selected lip M_{L }and then calculates a spring constant k_{lip}(x) (x, f_{lip}(x)) by substituting the pressing force f_{lip}(x) into the resiliency function. The spring constant k_{lip}(x) (x, f_{lip}(x)) thus calculated by the characteristic parameter conversion section **21** is used in arithmetic operations by the reed simulating section **31** (more specifically, by the first and second arithmetic operation sections **311** and **312**).

In the instant embodiment, as set forth above, the spring constant k_{lip}(x) (x, f_{lip}(x)) varies in accordance with not only the position x on which the pressing force f_{lip}(x) acts, but also the intensity of the pressing force f_{lip}(x). Namely, the instant embodiment can faithfully reproduce behavior of an actual wind instrument in which the generated tone varies in accordance with the intensity of the pressing force f_{lip}(x) acting from the teeth on the lip during a performance and position (x) of the teeth relative to the lip. In this way, the instant embodiment can faithfully synthesize a variety of tones corresponding to various rendition styles.

Whereas, in the above-described measurement, the pressing force f_{lip}(x) is caused to act on part of the test piece **82**, there may be employed an alternative method in which the pressing force f_{lip}(x) is caused to act on the entire upper surface of the test piece **82** so as to measure a spring constant k_{lip}(x) (x, f_{lip}(x)). In the case where such an alternative method is employed, a spring constant k_{lip}(x) (x, f_{lip}(x)) that varies in accordance with the pressing force f_{lip}(x) but does not depend on the position x is defined by the elastic function. In this way, it is possible to reproduce behavior in which the generated tone varies in accordance with the pressing force acting from the teeth to the lip.

In the above-described first embodiment, the internal resistance μ_{lip}(x) of the lip M_{L }and the internal resistance μ_{reed}(x) of the reed M_{R }take fixed values that do not depend on the position x. However, in a third embodiment to be described below, the internal resistance μ_{lip}(x) of the lip M_{L }and the internal resistance μ_{reed}(x) of the reed M_{R }are varied in accordance with the position x.

If the horizontal width b_{lip}_{—}_{sample }of the lip sample in Mathematical Expression (a3) above is substituted by a horizontal width b_{lip}(x) corresponding to the position x, the following Mathematical Expression (a3-1) is derived:

Similarly, for the internal resistance μ_{reed}(x) of the reed M_{R}, there can be derived the following Equation (a4-1) where the sectional area A(x) of the reed M_{R }that varies in accordance with the position x and the spring constant k_{reed}(x) are variables:

FIG. 16 is a block diagram showing the characteristic parameter conversion section **21** employed in the third embodiment. As shown, the characteristic parameter conversion section **21** calculates the internal resistance μ_{lip}(x) corresponding to the position x by performing the arithmetic operation of Equation (a3-1) with respect to the physical property values and dimension (_{tan δ lip}, b_{lip}(x), ρ_{lip }and E_{lip}(x)) of the lip M_{L}. The horizontal width b_{lip}(x) is calculated from the tone pitch f_{n }through a key process as in the above-described first embodiment.

Further, the characteristic parameter conversion section **21** calculates the internal resistance μ_{reed}(x) corresponding to the position x by performing the arithmetic operation of Equation (a4-1) with respect to the physical property values (_{tan δ reed}, ρ_{reed}, A(x) and k_{reed}(x)). The sectional area A(x) calculated by the shape characteristic parameter conversion section **23** performing the arithmetic operation of Equation (b2) is used in the arithmetic operation of Equation (a4-1). Numerical value stored in the storage device **42** or designated via the input device **44**, for example, is used as the spring constant k_{reed}(x) [N/m] of the reed M_{R }in Equation (a4-1).

The internal resistance μ_{lip}(x) and internal resistance μ_{reed}(x) calculated in the aforementioned arithmetic operation sequence are used in the arithmetic operation of Motion Equation B by the second arithmetic operation section **312**. With the instant embodiment, where the internal resistance μ_{lip}(x) of the lip M_{L }and internal resistance μ_{reed}(x) of the reed M_{R }change in accordance with the position x, it is possible to faithfully reproduce tones of an actual wind instrument as compared to the construction (e.g., construction of the first embodiment) where the internal resistance μ_{lip}(x) and internal resistance μ_{reed}(x) are set at fixed values.

In a case where deformation of the lip M_{L }and reed M_{R }is relatively small, i.e. where the lip M_{L }and reed M_{R }deform within an elasticity limit), even the third embodiment where the internal resistance μ_{lip}(x) and internal resistance μ_{reed}(x) depend only on the position x can faithfully reproduce tones of an actual wind instrument. However, in a case where deformation of the lip M_{L }and reed M_{R }is great, i.e. where deformation of the lip M_{L }and reed M_{R }is outside the elasticity limit), the internal resistance f_{lip}(x)) of the lip M_{L }depends not only on the position x but also on the pressing force f_{lip}(x), and the internal resistance μ_{reed}(x, f_{reed}(x)) of the reed M_{R }depends not only on the position x but also on the pressing force f_{reed}(x) on the reed M_{R}.

FIG. 17 is graph showing relationship between the pressing force f_{reed}(x) acting on the reed M_{R }and the displacement (amount) of the reed M_{R}. As shown, once the pressing force f_{reed}(x) exceeds a predetermined value f_{TH}, i.e. once the pressing force f_{reed}(x) reaches the elasticity limit, the displacement of the reed M_{R }changes non-linearly. Namely, as the intensity of the pressing force f_{reed}(x) increases, the spring constant k_{lip}(x) (x, f_{lip}(x)) decreases (i.e., the reed M_{R }becomes easier to deform). Because the pressing force f_{reed}(x) acting from the lip M_{L }on the reed M_{R }is equal to the pressing force f_{lip}(x) acting from the reed M_{R }on the lip M_{L}, the pressing force f_{reed}(x) is written as the pressing force f_{lip}(x), for convenience sake, in the following description.

The internal resistance μ_{lip}(x, f_{lip}(x)) of the lip M_{L }is defined by Equation (a3-2) below. Because the spring constant k_{lip}(x) (x, f_{lip}(x)) in Equation (a3-2) is a function of the pressing force f_{lip}(x), the internal resistance f_{lip}(x)) changes in accordance with the position x and pressing force f_{lip}(x). Similarly, the internal resistance μ_{reed}(x, f_{lip}(x)) of the reed M_{R }changes in accordance with the position x and pressing force f_{lip}(x) (spring constant k_{reed}(x, f_{lip}(x)), as defined by Equation (a4-2) below.

FIG. 18 is a block diagram showing the characteristic parameter conversion section **21** employed in the fourth embodiment. As shown, the characteristic parameter conversion section **21** has two types of tables (T_{lip}, T_{reed}). The table T_{lip }correlates values of the pressing force f_{lip}(x) and the spring constant k_{lip}(x) (x, f_{lip}(x)) of the lip M_{L }to each other, and the table T_{reed }correlates values of the pressing force f_{lip}(x) and the spring constant k_{reed}(x) (x, f_{lip}(x)) of the reed M_{R }to each other. Contents of the table T_{lip }and table T_{reed }are set in accordance with results of experiments where pressing force was applied to an actual lip and reed. The characteristic parameter conversion section **21** searches through the table T_{lip }for a spring constant k_{lip}(x) (x, f_{lip}(x)) corresponding to pressing force f_{lip}(x) per unit length calculated by dividing pressing force F_{lip}(x), calculated through a key scale process, by a length l_{teeth }of the teeth M_{T}, and then searches through the table T_{reed }for a spring constant k_{reed}(x) (x, f_{lip}(x)) corresponding to the pressing force f_{lip}(x).

Then, the characteristic parameter conversion section **21** calculates internal resistance μ_{lip}(x, f_{lip}(x)) corresponding to the position x and pressing force f_{lip}(x) by performing the arithmetic operation of Equation (a3-2) with respect to the spring constant k_{lip}(x) (x, f_{lip}(x)) searched out from the table T_{lip }and physical property values (m_{lip }and _{tan δ lip}) of the lip M_{L}. As in the above-described first embodiment, the distribution of mass m_{lip}(x) in Equation (a3-2) above is a result of multiplication between the horizontal width b_{lip}(x) and the density ρ_{lip}. Further, the characteristic parameter conversion section **21** calculates internal resistance μ_{reed}(x, f_{lip}(x)) corresponding to the position x and pressing force f_{lip}(x) by performing the arithmetic operation of Equation (a4-2) with respect to the spring constant k_{reed}(x) (x, f_{lip}(x)) searched out from the table T_{reed }and physical property values and dimension (_{tan δ reed}, ρ_{reed }and A(x)) of the reed M_{R}.

The internal resistance μ_{lip}(x, f_{lip}(x)) and internal resistance μ_{reed}(x) (x, f_{lip}(x)) calculated in the aforementioned arithmetic operational sequence are used in the arithmetic operation of Motion Equation B by the second arithmetic operation section **312**. With the instant embodiment, where the internal resistance μ_{lip}(x, f_{lip}(x)) of the lip M_{L }and internal resistance μ_{reed}(x)(x, f_{lip}(x)) of the reed M_{R }change in accordance with the position x and intensity of the pressing force f_{lip}(x), it is possible to faithfully reproduce tones of an actual wind instrument as compared to the construction (e.g., construction of the first embodiment) where the internal resistance μ_{lip}(x) and internal resistance μ_{reed}(x) are set at fixed values. Whereas the foregoing description has been made assuming that deformation of the lip M_{L }and reed M_{R }is outside the elasticity limit, the construction of FIG. 18 is also applicable to the case where deformation of the lip M_{L }and reed M_{R }is only within the elasticity limit.

<Modification>

The above-described embodiments may be modified variously as set forth below by way of example.

(1) Modification 1:

Whereas the embodiments have been described above in relation to the case where the characteristic parameter conversion section **21** and shape characteristic parameter conversion section **23** convert user-input parameters into parameters necessary for tone synthesis, there may be employed an alternative construction where various parameters to be used in arithmetic operations by the synthesis section **14** are input directly by the user. For example, although FIG. 12 illustratively shows the construction where parameters pertaining to the embouchure and fingering are calculated through the key scale process, there may be employed an alternative construction where such parameters pertaining to the embouchure and fingering are input or designated directly to the arithmetic operation processing device **10** by the user via the input device **44**.

(2) Modification 2:

Whereas the embodiments have been described above in relation to the case where the product between the Young's modulus and the second moment of area I(x) of the reed M_{R }is determined as bending rigidity S_{till}(x) of the reed M_{R}, there may be employed an alternative construction where bending rigidity S_{till}(x) of the reed M_{R }is determined from results of actual measurements. In one example, bending rigidity S_{till}(x) is determined from displacement of a test piece, simulating the reed M_{R}, measured with pressing force applied to various positions x of the test piece, and then a function (hereinafter “rigidity function”) approximating relationship between the position x and the bending rigidity S_{till}(x) is created. Such rigidity functions of a plurality of types of reeds M_{R}, differing in physical property value and dimension, are sequentially created in the aforementioned manner and stored into the storage device **42**. The reed simulating section **31** (more specifically, the first and second arithmetic operation sections **311** and **312**) of the arithmetic operation processing device **10** acquires, from the storage device **42**, rigidity function corresponding to any one of the reeds M_{R }(e.g., reed M_{R }selected by the user) and uses the acquired rigidity function in subsequent arithmetic operations. Such arrangements too can achieve substantially the same advantageous benefits as the first and second embodiments.

(3) Modification 3:

Tone synthesis based on the displacement y(x, t) calculated by the second arithmetic operation section **312** may be performed in any desired manner. For example, there may be employed a construction where simulation of sound wave losses in tone holes and boundary between inside and outside of the bell is omitted.

This application is based on, and claims priority to, JP PA 2008-003383 filed on 10 Jan. 2008 and JP PA 2008-120311 filed on 2 May 2008. The disclosure of the priority applications, in its entirety, including the drawings, claims, and the specification thereof, is incorporated herein by reference.

1. An apparatus for synthesizing a tone of a wind instrument that is generated in response to vibration of a reed contacting a lip during a performance of the wind instrument, said apparatus comprising:

a first arithmetic operation section that solves a first motion equation representative of behavior of the reed in an equilibrium state with external force acting on the lip and a second motion equation representative of behavior of the lip in the equilibrium state, to thereby calculate displacement of the lip and displacement of the reed in the equilibrium state;

a second arithmetic operation section that solves a motion equation of coupled vibration of the lip and the reed with calculation results of said first arithmetic operation section used as initial values of the displacement of the lip and the displacement of the reed, to thereby calculate the displacement of the reed; and

a tone synthesis section that synthesizes a tone on the basis of the displacement calculated by said second arithmetic operation section.

a first arithmetic operation section that solves a first motion equation representative of behavior of the reed in an equilibrium state with external force acting on the lip and a second motion equation representative of behavior of the lip in the equilibrium state, to thereby calculate displacement of the lip and displacement of the reed in the equilibrium state;

a second arithmetic operation section that solves a motion equation of coupled vibration of the lip and the reed with calculation results of said first arithmetic operation section used as initial values of the displacement of the lip and the displacement of the reed, to thereby calculate the displacement of the reed; and

a tone synthesis section that synthesizes a tone on the basis of the displacement calculated by said second arithmetic operation section.

2. The apparatus as claimed in claim 1 wherein, each time intensity of the external force acting on the lip changes,

said first arithmetic operation section calculates displacement of the lip corresponding to the changed intensity of the external force on the basis of said first motion equation and said second motion equation, and

said second arithmetic operation section calculates displacement of the reed by substituting the displacement of the lip, calculated by said first arithmetic operation section, into said motion equation of coupled vibration.

said first arithmetic operation section calculates displacement of the lip corresponding to the changed intensity of the external force on the basis of said first motion equation and said second motion equation, and

said second arithmetic operation section calculates displacement of the reed by substituting the displacement of the lip, calculated by said first arithmetic operation section, into said motion equation of coupled vibration.

3. The apparatus as claimed in claim 1 wherein said first motion equation and said second motion equation include a spring constant of the lip that changes in accordance with a position in the lip and intensity of pressing force acting on the lip.

4. The apparatus as claimed in claim 1 wherein said first motion equation includes bending rigidity that changes in accordance with a position of the reed.

5. The apparatus as claimed in claim 1 wherein said second arithmetic operation section limits the displacement of the reed to within a predetermined range.

6. The apparatus as claimed in claim 1 wherein said motion equation of coupled vibration includes at least one of internal resistance of the lip that changes in accordance with a position in the lip and internal resistance of the reed that changes in accordance with a position in the reed.

7. The apparatus as claimed in claim 1 wherein said motion equation of coupled vibration includes at least one of internal resistance of the lip that changes in accordance with a position in the lip and pressing force acting on the lip and internal resistance of the reed that changes in accordance with a position in the reed and pressing force acting on the reed.

8. A method performed by a computer for synthesizing a tone of a wind instrument that is generated in response to vibration of a reed contacting a lip during a performance of the wind instrument, said method comprising:

a first arithmetic operation step of solving a first motion equation representative of behavior of the reed in an equilibrium state with external force acting on the lip and a second motion equation representative of behavior of the lip in the equilibrium state, to thereby calculate displacement of the lip and displacement of the reed in the equilibrium state;

a second arithmetic operation step of solving a motion equation of coupled vibration of the lip and the reed with calculation results of said first arithmetic operation step used as initial values of the displacement of the lip and the displacement of the reed, to thereby calculate the displacement of the reed; and

a tone synthesis step of synthesizing a tone on the basis of the displacement calculated by said second arithmetic operation step.

a first arithmetic operation step of solving a first motion equation representative of behavior of the reed in an equilibrium state with external force acting on the lip and a second motion equation representative of behavior of the lip in the equilibrium state, to thereby calculate displacement of the lip and displacement of the reed in the equilibrium state;

a second arithmetic operation step of solving a motion equation of coupled vibration of the lip and the reed with calculation results of said first arithmetic operation step used as initial values of the displacement of the lip and the displacement of the reed, to thereby calculate the displacement of the reed; and

a tone synthesis step of synthesizing a tone on the basis of the displacement calculated by said second arithmetic operation step.

9. A computer-readable medium storing a program executable by a computer for synthesizing a tone of a wind instrument that is generated in response to vibration of a reed contacting a lip during a performance of the wind instrument, said method comprising:

a first arithmetic operation step of solving a first motion equation representative of behavior of the reed in an equilibrium state with external force acting on the lip and a second motion equation representative of behavior of the lip in the equilibrium state, to thereby calculate displacement of the lip and displacement of the reed in the equilibrium state;

a second arithmetic operation step of solving a motion equation of coupled vibration of the lip and the reed with calculation results of said first arithmetic operation step used as initial values of the displacement of the lip and the displacement of the reed, to thereby calculate the displacement of the reed; and

a tone synthesis step of synthesizing a tone on the basis of the displacement calculated by said second arithmetic operation step.