Indexed on: 04 Sep '10Published on: 04 Sep '10Published in: Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)
NADH-localized fluorometry was used as a noninvasive technique to monitor changes in the energy state of intact tissue (muscle and connective tissue), without anesthesia, as a function of blood plasma O(2)-carrying capacity in the hamster window chamber model. Acute moderate isovolemic hemodilution was induced by two isovolemic hemodilution steps: in the first step, 6% 70-kDa dextran (Dex70) was used to induce an acute anemic state (18% Hct); in the second step, exchange transfusion of polyethylene glycol (PEG) maleimide-conjugated Hb (4 g/dl, PEG-Hb) or Dex70 (6 g/dl) was used to reduce erythrocytes to 75% of baseline (11% Hct). PEG-Hb had six copies of PEG (5 kDa) conjugated to each human Hb (0.48 g PEG/g Hb) through extension arm-facilitated chemistry. Systemic parameters, microvascular perfusion, functional capillary density, intravascular and interstitial Po(2), and intracellular NADH fluorescence were monitored. Mean arterial blood pressure after extreme hemodilution was statistically significantly reduced for Dex70 compared with PEG-Hb. The presence of PEG-Hb in the circulation maintained positive acid-base balance. While microvascular blood flows were not different, functional capillary density was significantly higher for PEG-Hb than Dex70. Arteriolar Po(2) was higher in the presence of PEG-Hb than Dex70, but tissue and venular Po(2) were not different. Cellular energy metabolism (intracellular O(2)) in the tissues was improved with PEG-Hb. Moderate hemodilution to 18% Hct (6.4 g Hb/dl) brings tissue O(2) delivery to the verge of inadequacy. Extreme hemodilution to 11% Hct (3.7 g Hb/dl) produces tissue anoxia, and high-O(2)-affinity PEG-Hb (Po(2) at which blood is 50% saturated with O(2) = 4 Torr, 1.1 g Hb/dl) only partially decreases anaerobic metabolism without increasing tissue Po(2).