Three-electron spin qubits.

Research paper by Maximilian M Russ, Guido G Burkard

Indexed on: 01 Jun '17Published on: 01 Jun '17Published in: Journal of physics. Condensed matter : an Institute of Physics journal


The goal of this article is to review the progress of three-electron spin qubits from their inception to the state of the art. We direct the main focus towards the exchange-only qubit and its derived versions, e.g., the resonant exchange (RX) qubit, but we also discuss other qubit implementations using three electron spins. For each three-spin qubit we describe the qubit model, the envisioned physical realization, the implementations of single-qubit operations, as well as the read-out and initialization schemes. Two-qubit gates and decoherence properties are discussed for the RX qubit and the exchange-only qubit, thereby completing the list of requirements for quantum computation for a viable candidate qubit implementation. We start by describing the full system of three electrons in a triple quantum dot, then discuss the charge-stability diagram, restricting ourselves to the relevant subsystem, introduce the qubit states, and discuss important transitions to other charge states. Introducing the various qubit implementations, we begin with the exchange-only qubit, followed by the RX qubit, the spin-charge qubit, and the hybrid qubit. The main focus will be on the exchange-only qubit and its modification, the RX qubit, whose single-qubit operations are realized by driving the qubit at its resonant frequency in the microwave range similar to electron spin resonance. Two different types of two-qubit operations are presented for the exchange-only qubits which can be divided into short-ranged and long-ranged interactions. Both of these interaction types are expected to be necessary in a large-scale quantum computer. The short-ranged interactions use the exchange coupling by placing qubits next to each other and applying exchange-pulses, while the long-ranged interactions use the photons of a superconducting microwave cavity as a mediator in order to couple two qubits over long distances. We also take into account the decoherence through the influence of magnetic noise and charge noise.