Indexed on: 15 Apr '20Published on: 15 Apr '20Published in: Journal of Orthopaedic Research
Osteomyelitis, or the infection of bone, presents a major complication in orthopedics and may lead to prolonged hospital visits, implant failure, and in more extreme cases, amputation of affected limbs. Typical treatment for this disease involves surgical debridement followed by long-term, systemic antibiotic administration, which contributes to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and has limited ability to eradicate challenging biofilm-forming pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus-the most common cause of osteomyelitis. Local delivery of high doses of antibiotic via traditional bone cements can reduce systemic side effects of antibiotic. Nonetheless, growing concerns over burst release (then subtherapeutic dose) of antibiotic, along with microbial colonization of the nondegradable cement biomaterial, further exacerbate antibiotic resistance and highlight the need to engineer alternative antimicrobial therapeutics and local delivery vehicles with increased efficacy against, in particular, biofilm-forming, antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Furthermore, limited guidance exists regarding both standardized formulation protocols and validated assays to predict efficacy of a therapeutic against multiple strains of bacteria. Ideally, antimicrobial strategies would be highly specific while exhibiting a broad spectrum of bactericidal activity. With a focus on Staphylococcus aureus infection, this review addresses the efficacy of novel therapeutics and local delivery vehicles, as alternatives to the traditional antibiotic regimens. The aim of this review is to discuss these components with regards to long bone osteomyelitis, and to encourage positive directions for future research efforts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.