The triad of diabetes ketoacidosis, hypertriglyceridemia and acute pancreatitis. How does it affect mortality and morbidity?: A 10-year analysis of the National Inpatient Sample.

Research paper by C Roberto CR Simons-Linares, Sunguk S Jang, Madhusudan M Sanaka, Amit A Bhatt, Rocio R Lopez, John J Vargo, Tyler T Stevens, Prabhleen P Chahal

Indexed on: 15 Feb '19Published on: 15 Feb '19Published in: Medicine


The triad of acute pancreatitis (AP) coexisting with diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) and hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) has been reported, but no impact on mortality has been found to date. We aim to assess if patients with this triad are at a higher inpatient mortality compared to patients with acute pancreatitis only.Retrospective cohort. The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database from 2003 to 2013 was queried for patients with a discharge diagnosis of AP and presence of DKA and HTG was ascertained based on International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision (ICD9) codes. Adjusted for age, gender, race, Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), median income quartile, and hospital characteristics.Over 2.8 million AP patients were analyzed. When compared with patients with AP-only, patients with the triad of AP + DKA + HTG had higher inpatient mortality (aOR 2.8, P < .001; CI: 1.9 - 4.2), Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) (aOR 4.1, P < .001; CI: 3.6-4.6), Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) (aOR 4.9, P < .001), Shock (aOR 4.3, P < .001), Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) (aOR 3.0, P < .001), sepsis (aOR 2.6, P < .001), ileus (aOR 2.1, P < .001), parenteral nutrition requirement (aOR 1.8, P < .001), inflation-adjusted hospital charges (US$ 17,704.1), and had longer length of stay (LOS) (aOR 2.0, P < .001; CI 1.8-2.3). Furthermore, when compared to AP-only, patients with AP + HTG had lower mortality, which is different from the current AP knowledge. Finally, it appears that the driving force for the increased in mortality of patients with the triad (AP, DKA, HTG) is the DKA rather than the HTG.Patients with the triad of AP, DKA, and HTG constitute a unique subgroup of patients that has higher inpatient mortality, multi-organ failure, hospital charges, and longer hospital length of stay. Therefore, hospital protocols targeting this subgroup of AP patients could improve mortality and outcomes.