Indexed on: 09 Dec '14Published on: 09 Dec '14Published in: Acta Biomaterialia
The detection of peptides from the calcitonin (CT) family in the periarticular tissue of loosened implants has raised hopes of opening new regenerative therapies in the process of aseptic loosening, which remains the major cause of early implant failure in endoprosthetic surgery. We have previously shown the roles of α-calcitonin gene-related peptide (α-CGRP) and the CALCA gene which encodes α-CGRP/CT in this process. To uncover the role of direct calcitonin receptor (CTR) mediated signalling, we studied particle-induced osteolysis (PIO) in a murine calvaria model with a global deletion of the CTR (CTR-KO) using μCT analysis and histomorphometry. As expected, CTR-KO mice revealed reduced bone volume compared to wild-type (WT) controls (p<0.05). In CTR-KO mice we found significantly higher RANKL (receptor activator of NF-κB ligand) expression in the particle group than in the control group. The increase in osteoclast numbers by the particles was twice as high as the increase of osteoclasts in the WT mice (400 vs. 200%). Changes in the eroded surface and actual osteolysis due to ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene particles were similar in WTs and CTR-KOs. Taken together, our findings strengthen the relevance of the OPG/RANK/RANKL system in the PIO process. CTR seems to have an effect on osteoclast differentiation in this context. As there were no obvious changes of the amount of PIO in CTR deficiency, regenerative strategies in aseptic loosening of endoprosthetic implants based on peptides arising from the CT family should rather focus on the impact of α-CGRP.