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The responses of winter cultivars of common wheat, durum wheat and spelt to agronomic factors

Research paper by W. S. Budzyński, K. Bepirszcz, K. J. Jankowski, B. Dubis, A. Hłasko-Nasalska, M. M. Sokólski, J. Olszewski, D. Załuski

Indexed on: 24 Apr '19Published on: 01 Dec '18Published in: The Journal of agricultural science



Abstract

A field experiment with the 35–1 fractional factorial design and five factors (k = 5) at three levels (s = 3) was performed in 2007–2010 at the Agricultural Experiment Station in Bałcyny, north-eastern (NE) Poland. The results of the experiment carried out under the agro-ecological conditions of NE Poland confirmed the high yield potential of common wheat and satisfactory yield potential of spelt and durum wheat. On average, durum wheat and spelt yields were 2.14 and 2.55 t/ha lower, respectively, than common wheat yields. Sowing date was not correlated with the yields of analysed Triticum species. Seed rate (350, 450 and 550 seeds/m2) had no significant influence on the grain yield of winter cultivars of common wheat, durum wheat and spelt. Common wheat cv. Oliwin and durum wheat cv. Komnata were characterized by the highest yields in response to nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates calculated based on the Nmin content of soil. An increase in the spring fertilizer rate by 40 kg N/ha in excess of the balanced N rate was not justified because it did not induce a further increase in the grain yield of common wheat and durum wheat. The grain yield of spelt cv. Schwabenkorn continued to increase in response to the highest rate of N fertilizer in spring (40 kg N/ha higher than the optimal rate). Intensified fungicide treatments improved grain yield in all Triticum species.