Indexed on: 05 May '04Published on: 05 May '04Published in: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Hepoxilins are biologically relevant eicosanoids formed via the 12-lipoxygenase pathway of the arachidonic acid cascade. Although these eicosanoids exhibit a myriad of biological activities, their biosynthetic mechanism has not been investigated in detail. We examined the arachidonic acid metabolism of RINm5F rat insulinoma cells and found that they constitutively express a leukocyte-type 12S-lipoxygenase. Moreover, we observed that RINm5F cells exhibit an active hepoxilin A(3) synthase that converts exogenous 12S-HpETE (12S-5Z,8-Z,10E,14Z-12-hydro(pero)xy-eicosa-5,8,10,14-tetraenoic acid) or arachidonic acid predominantly to hepoxilin A(3). 12S-lipoxygenase and hepoxilin A(3) synthase activities were co-localized in the cytosol; immunoprecipitation with an anti-12S-lipoxygenase antibody co-precipitated the two catalytic activities. These data suggested that hepoxilin A(3) synthase activity may be considered an intrinsic catalytic property of the leukocyte-type 12S-lipoxygenase. To test this hypothesis we cloned the leukocyte-type 12S-LOX from RINm5F cells, expressed it in Pichia pastoris, and found that the recombinant enzyme exhibited both 12S-lipoxygenase and hepoxilin A(3) synthase activities. The recombinant human platelet-type 12S-lipoxygenase and the porcine leukocyte-type 12S-lipoxygenase also exhibited hepoxilin A(3) synthase activity. In contrast, the native rabbit reticulocyte-type 15S-lipoxygenase did not convert 12S-HpETE to hepoxilin isomers. These data suggest that the positional specificity of lipoxygenases may be crucial for this catalytic function. This hypothesis was confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis studies that altered the positional specificity of the rat leukocyte-type 12S- and the rabbit reticulocyte-type 15-lipoxygenase. In summary, it may be concluded that naturally occurring 12S-lipoxygenases exhibit an intrinsic hepoxilin A(3) synthase activity that is minimal in lipoxygenase isoforms with different positional specificity.