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The effect of exercise training on clinical outcomes in patients with the metabolic syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Research paper by C C Ostman, N A NA Smart, D D Morcos, A A Duller, W W Ridley, D D Jewiss

Indexed on: 01 Sep '17Published on: 01 Sep '17Published in: Cardiovascular Diabetology



Abstract

Purpose: to establish if exercise training improves clinical outcomes in people with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Registered with PROSPERO international prospective register of systematic reviews ( https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/Identifier:CRD42017055491 ).studies were identified through a MEDLINE search strategy (1985 to Jan 12, 2017), Cochrane controlled trials registry, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus.prospective randomized or controlled trials of exercise training in humans with metabolic syndrome, lasting 12 weeks or more.We included 16 studies with 23 intervention groups; 77,000 patient-hours of exercise training. In analyses of aerobic exercise studies versus control: body mass index was significantly reduced, mean difference (MD) -0.29 (kg m(-2)) (95% CI -0.44, -0.15, p < 0.0001); body mass was significantly reduced, MD -1.16 kg (95% CI -1.83, -0.48, p = 0.0008); waist circumference was significantly reduced MD -1.37 cm (95% CI -2.02, -0.71, p < 0.0001), peak VO2 was significantly improved MD 3.00 mL kg(-1) min(-1) (95% CI 1.92, 4.08, p < 0.000001); systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were significantly reduced, MD -2.54 mmHg (95% CI -4.34, -0.75, p = 0.006), and, MD -2.27 mmHg (95% CI -3.47, -1.06, p = 0.0002) respectively; fasting blood glucose was significantly reduced MD -0.16 mmol L(-1) (95% CI -0.32, -0.01, p = 0.04); triglycerides were significantly reduced MD -0.21 mmol L(-1) (95% CI -0.29, -0.13, p < 0.00001); and low density lipoprotein was significantly reduced MD -0.03 mmol L(-1) (95% CI -0.05, -0.00, p = 0.02). In analyses of combined exercise versus control: waist circumference, MD -3.80 cm (95% CI -5.65, -1.95, p < 0.0001); peak VO2 MD 4.64 mL kg(-1) min(-1) (95% CI 2.42, 6.87, p < 0.0001); systolic blood pressure MD -3.79 mmHg (95% CI -6.18, -1.40, p = 0.002); and high density lipoprotein (HDL) MD 0.14 (95% CI 0.04, 0.25, p = 0.009) were all significantly improved. We found no significant differences between outcome measures between the two exercise interventions.Exercise training improves body composition, cardiovascular, and, metabolic outcomes in people with metabolic syndrome. For some outcome measures, isolated aerobic exercise appears optimal.