Indexed on: 04 Dec '14Published on: 04 Dec '14Published in: The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
The biosynthesis of steroid hormones is dependent on P450-catalyzed reactions. In mammals, cholesterol is the common precursor of all steroid hormones, and its conversion to pregnenolone is the initial and rate-limiting step in hormone biosynthesis in steroidogenic tissues such as gonads and adrenal glands. The production of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids takes place in the adrenal gland and the final steps are catalyzed by 2 mitochondrial cytochromes P450, CYP11B1 (11β-hydroxylase or P45011β) and CYP11B2 (aldosterone synthase or P450aldo). The occurrence and development of these 2 enzymes in different species, their contribution to the biosynthesis of steroid hormones as well as their regulation at different levels (gene expression, cellular regulation, regulation on the level of proteins) is the topic of this chapter.