Indexed on: 03 Feb '18Published on: 03 Feb '18Published in: Multiple sclerosis (Houndmills, Basingstoke, England)
Pediatric acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADSs) are monophasic (mono-ADS) in 70% of cases and represent the first attack of multiple sclerosis (MS) in 30%. Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure has been implicated as a risk factor for adult-onset MS. Little is known about whether SHS presents an additive risk beyond genetic factors and other environmental exposures associated with pediatric MS.This study examined SHS exposure in 216 children with mono-ADS and 81 children with MS. Interactions between SHS, HLA-DRB1*15 alleles, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and serological evidence of remote Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) exposure were evaluated.SHS exposure was more common in children with MS (37% exposed) compared to mono-ADS (29.5% exposed). Compared to mono-ADS, SHS exposure was not an independent risk factor for MS. When both SHS exposure and HLA-DRB1*15 were present, the odds for MS increased (odds ratio (OR) = 3.7; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17-11.9) compared to mono-ADS. Interactions between SHS and vitamin D or EBV did not associate with MS.Exposure to SHS is a risk factor for central nervous system (CNS) demyelination. Results suggest that SHS exposure and HLA-DRB1*15 interact to increase risk for MS in children diagnosed with mono-ADS.