Indexed on: 10 Aug '10Published on: 10 Aug '10Published in: Current opinion in organ transplantation
Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) is the primary obstacle to short-term survival for post-lung transplant patients. PGD is a form of acute lung injury secondary to donor brain death and ischemia-reperfusion damage to the allograft affecting 10-25% of all lung transplant recipients. This article reviews the significant role of allograft ischemia in the phenotypic presentation of PGD and the evidence for activation and disruption of normal cellular pathways for the development and long-term sequelae.Pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of PGD resultant from tissue ischemia include abnormalities in coagulation and fibrinolysis, epithelial cell injury, endothelial cell dysfunction, chemotaxis, and alterations in cell adhesion. Blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid biomarkers from these pathways have been increasingly identified as useful for diagnosing and predicting the development of severe PGD.Future efforts at preventing and treating severe PGD should focus on techniques for altering the pathways involved in PGD pathogenesis. Ex-vivo lung perfusion and transduction with interleukin-10 are promising modalities for preventing PGD and expanding the available lung transplant donor pool.