Indexed on: 20 Dec '18Published on: 20 Dec '18Published in: Immunological Reviews
Dynamic changes in metabolism have long been understood as critical for both the initiation and maintenance of innate and adaptive immune responses. A number of recent advances have clarified details of how metabolic pathways can specifically affect cellular function in immune cells. Critical to this understanding is ongoing study of the congenital disorders of glycosylation and other genetic disorders of metabolism that lead to altered immune function in humans. While there are a number of immune phenotypes associated with metabolic derangements caused by single gene disorders, several genetic mutations have begun to link discrete alterations in metabolism and growth specifically with allergic disease. This subset of primary atopic disorders is of particular interest as they illuminate how hypomorphic mutations which allow for some residual function of mutated protein products permit the "abnormal" allergic response. This review will highlight how mutations altering sugar metabolism and mTOR activation place similar constraints on T lymphocyte metabolism to engender atopy, and how alterations in JAK/STAT signaling can impair growth and cellular metabolism while concomitantly promoting allergic diseases and reactions in humans. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.