Indexed on: 12 Mar '04Published on: 12 Mar '04Published in: Biochemical Pharmacology
Mast cells produce chemical mediators, including histamine and arachidonate metabolites such as prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)) after antigen stimulation. Cyclopentenone prostaglandins of the J series, prostaglandin J(2) (PGJ(2)) and 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)), are thought to be derivatives of PGD(2). In this study, the biphasic effects of the PGJ(2) and 15d-PGJ(2) on proliferation and apoptosis in rat basophilic leukemia cells (RBL-2H3), a tumor analog of mast cells, were examined. At low concentrations, 1 or 3 microM PGJ(2) and 15d-PGJ(2) induced cell proliferation, respectively. At high concentrations (10-30 microM) both the inhibition of viability and decrease in histamine content in RBL-2H3 cells were dose dependent. These effects were independent of the nuclear hormone receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), since troglitazone, an agonist of PPARgamma did not cause any effects in RBL-2H3 cells. Cell death induced by PGJ(2) and 15d-PGJ(2) was the result of apoptotic processes, since RBL-2H3 cells treated with 30 microM of the prostaglandins had condensed nuclei, DNA fragmentation and increase in activities of caspase-3 and -9. Moreover, PGJ(2) or 15d-PGJ(2)-induced apoptotic effects were prevented by the caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk. In conclusion, the PGJ(2) or 15d-PGJ(2)-induced apoptosis in RBL-2H3 cells occurs mainly via mitochondrial pathways instead of by PPARgamma-dependent mechanisms.