Indexed on: 27 Jun '14Published on: 27 Jun '14Published in: Journal of virology
The ATR kinase has essential functions in maintenance of genome integrity in response to replication stress. ATR is recruited to RPA-coated single-stranded DNA at DNA damage sites via its interacting partner, ATRIP, which binds to the large subunit of RPA. ATR activation typically leads to activation of the Chk1 kinase among other substrates. We show here that, together with a number of other DNA repair proteins, both ATR and its associated protein, ATRIP, were recruited to viral nuclear replication compartments (autonomous parvovirus-associated replication [APAR] bodies) during replication of the single-stranded parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM). Chk1, however, was not activated during MVM infection even though viral genomes bearing bound RPA, normally a potent trigger of ATR activation, accumulate in APAR bodies. Failure to activate Chk1 in response to MVM infection was likely due to our observation that Rad9 failed to associate with chromatin at MVM APAR bodies. Additionally, early in infection, prior to the onset of the virus-induced DNA damage response (DDR), stalling of the replication of MVM genomes with hydroxyurea (HU) resulted in Chk1 phosphorylation in a virus dose-dependent manner. However, upon establishment of full viral replication, MVM infection prevented activation of Chk1 in response to HU and various other drug treatments. Finally, ATR phosphorylation became undetectable upon MVM infection, and although virus infection induced RPA32 phosphorylation on serine 33, an ATR-associated phosphorylation site, this phosphorylation event could not be prevented by ATR depletion or inhibition. Together our results suggest that MVM infection disables the ATR signaling pathway.Upon infection, the parvovirus MVM activates a cellular DNA damage response that governs virus-induced cell cycle arrest and is required for efficient virus replication. ATM and ATR are major cellular kinases that coordinate the DNA damage response to diverse DNA damage stimuli. Although a significant amount has been discovered about ATM activation during parvovirus infection, involvement of the ATR pathway has been less studied. During MVM infection, Chk1, a major downstream target of ATR, is not detectably phosphorylated even though viral genomes bearing the bound cellular single-strand binding protein RPA, normally a potent trigger of ATR activation, accumulate in viral replication centers. ATR phosphorylation also became undetectable. In addition, upon establishment of full viral replication, MVM infection prevented activation of Chk1 in response to hydroxyurea and various other drug treatments. Our results suggest that MVM infection disables this important cellular signaling pathway.