Quantcast

TEC variation over an equatorial and anomaly crest region in India during 2012 and 2013

Research paper by Sanjay Kumar, Kalpana Patel; Abhay Kumar Singh

Indexed on: 05 Oct '16Published on: 01 Oct '16Published in: GPS Solutions



Abstract

Using the global positioning system (GPS) measurements, the total electron content (TEC) at station Bangalore (13.02°N, 77.57°E geographic; 04.44°N, 150.84°E geomagnetic), lying at the equatorial region, and station Lucknow (26.91°N, 80.95°E geographic; 17.96°N, 155.24°E geomagnetic), lying at equatorial ionospheric anomaly (EIA) crest region, have been estimated for the year 2012–2013. In order to evaluate the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model regarding simulation/modeling of ionospheric studies specially at equatorial and EIA crest regions, we have compared the TEC derived from the recent version of the IRI-2012 model and the older IRI-2007 with its three topside options, namely IRI-NeQuick (IRI-NeQ), IRI-2001, and IRI01-corr, with that of GPS-TEC over Bangalore and Lucknow. For the EIA station Lucknow, the IRI-2012 model with IRI-NeQ and IRI01-corr topside is found in good agreement with GPS-TEC during summer and equinox season, while the IRI-2012 model for all three topside options significantly overestimates the GPS-TEC during winter season. The IRI-2001 topside overestimates the GPS-TEC over both the stations during all seasons. The anomalous difference between the IRI-2012 model prediction and ground-based GPS-TEC in daytime hours during the winter season observed at Lucknow could be attributed to discrepancies in the slab thickness predicted by the model, which is more during the winter season as compared to summer and equinox. These large discrepancies in the slab thickness predicted by the IRI-2012 as well as the IRI-2007 model during the winter season have been supported by using the foF2 data from Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate radio occultation-based measurements. We also observed that the discrepancies in the recent IRI-2012 model with respect to GPS-TEC are found to be slightly larger than those with the older IRI-2007 model over the EIA region Lucknow. However, over the equatorial region Bangalore, the discrepancy with the older model IRI-2007 was found to be larger than with the recent IRI-2012 model. This suggests that the performance of the IRI-2012 model is poorer than the IRI-2007 model at the EIA region while better at equatorial region, and that further improvements in the IRI-2012 models are required particularly in the low-latitude and EIA regions. The GPS-TEC showed disappearance of the winter anomaly during 2012–2013, while the IRI model failed to predict the disappearance of winter anomaly. Using the global positioning system (GPS) measurements, the total electron content (TEC) at station Bangalore (13.02°N, 77.57°E geographic; 04.44°N, 150.84°E geomagnetic), lying at the equatorial region, and station Lucknow (26.91°N, 80.95°E geographic; 17.96°N, 155.24°E geomagnetic), lying at equatorial ionospheric anomaly (EIA) crest region, have been estimated for the year 2012–2013. In order to evaluate the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model regarding simulation/modeling of ionospheric studies specially at equatorial and EIA crest regions, we have compared the TEC derived from the recent version of the IRI-2012 model and the older IRI-2007 with its three topside options, namely IRI-NeQuick (IRI-NeQ), IRI-2001, and IRI01-corr, with that of GPS-TEC over Bangalore and Lucknow. For the EIA station Lucknow, the IRI-2012 model with IRI-NeQ and IRI01-corr topside is found in good agreement with GPS-TEC during summer and equinox season, while the IRI-2012 model for all three topside options significantly overestimates the GPS-TEC during winter season. The IRI-2001 topside overestimates the GPS-TEC over both the stations during all seasons. The anomalous difference between the IRI-2012 model prediction and ground-based GPS-TEC in daytime hours during the winter season observed at Lucknow could be attributed to discrepancies in the slab thickness predicted by the model, which is more during the winter season as compared to summer and equinox. These large discrepancies in the slab thickness predicted by the IRI-2012 as well as the IRI-2007 model during the winter season have been supported by using the foF2 data from Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate radio occultation-based measurements. We also observed that the discrepancies in the recent IRI-2012 model with respect to GPS-TEC are found to be slightly larger than those with the older IRI-2007 model over the EIA region Lucknow. However, over the equatorial region Bangalore, the discrepancy with the older model IRI-2007 was found to be larger than with the recent IRI-2012 model. This suggests that the performance of the IRI-2012 model is poorer than the IRI-2007 model at the EIA region while better at equatorial region, and that further improvements in the IRI-2012 models are required particularly in the low-latitude and EIA regions. The GPS-TEC showed disappearance of the winter anomaly during 2012–2013, while the IRI model failed to predict the disappearance of winter anomaly.