Indexed on: 10 Feb '18Published on: 10 Feb '18Published in: European Journal of Immunology
T-bet and Eomes are T-box transcription factors that drive the differentiation and function of cytotoxic lymphocytes such as Natural Killer (NK) cells. Their DNA-binding domains are highly similar, suggesting redundant transcriptional activity. However, while these transcription factors have different patterns of expression, the phenotype of loss-of-function mouse models suggests that they play distinct roles in the development of NK cells and other innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Recent technological advances using reporter mice and conditional knockouts were fundamental in defining the regulation and function of these factors at steady state and during pathological conditions such as various types of cancer or infection. Here, we review these recent developments, focusing on NK cells as prototypical cytotoxic lymphocytes and their development, and also discuss parallels between NK cells and T cells. We also examine the role of T-bet and Eomes in human NK cells and ILC1s. Considering divergent findings on mouse and human ILC1s, we propose that NK cells are defined by co-expression of T-bet and Eomes, while ILC1s express only one of these factors, either T-bet or Eomes, depending on the tissue or the species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.