Imported: 12 Feb '17 | Published: 14 Jul '15
USPTO - Utility Patents
Systems and methods for co-locating a plurality of transceivers capable of operating on the same frequency without interference are provided. The transmissions and/or receptions of the transceivers are coordinated in the time domain such that conflicting sectors are not utilized simultaneously, allowing for the transceivers to be physically located in close proximity without significant intra-system interference. The coordinating programs described herein allow for enhanced efficiency of spectral utilization as well as enhanced quality of service (QoS) through latency controls, rate control and traffic prioritization.
The present application claims benefit of similarly titled U.S. provisional patent application Ser. No. 61/377,548 filed Aug. 27, 2010, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
The present invention is directed to a system and method for co-locating a plurality of transceivers that can operate on the same frequency without interference. More specifically, the invention is directed to a system and method for coordinating communications of multiple, co-located transceivers, to allow the transceivers to be physically located in close proximity without causing significant intra-system interference.
As consumer appetite for multimedia content continues to grow, internet service providers are struggling to provide sufficient bandwidth. Although wired solutions, such as T1 lines, digital subscriber lines (DSL), and cable modems, are becoming ubiquitous in urban environments, these systems are presently not available to a significant portion of the population. Moreover, acquisition and installation costs associated with these systems make them less appealing
One system that provides a fixed wireless solution with bandwidth comparable to DSL and cable modem technologies is a mesh network architecture. As described in, for example, commonly owned U.S. patent application Ser. Nos. 12/554,135 and 12/275,282, each of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety, a mesh network comprises a plurality of wirelessly connected nodes that communicate data traffic across a wide area. The nodes of a mesh network communicate with one another using radio or microwave communications signals
One of the most effective tools to improve wireless links, such as connections between nodes in a mesh network, is the use of directional antennas. The benefits of directional antennas include higher modulation and longer range; decreased interference susceptibility from external sources; decreased interference to other systems; and increased power due to point-to-point regulations in many countries. Despite these advantages, directional antennas are difficult to employ because they must be precisely aligned with a complementary antenna and/or many mesh networks require 360° coverage.
In those mesh networks where it is desirable to have 360° omnidirectional coverage, a plurality of directional antennas must be employed. Unfortunately, the use of multiple directional antennas in close proximity is difficult to implement, as such systems experience debilitating intra-system interference. Thus, co-located wireless directional antennas are normally assigned to different non-interfering frequencies, or are installed with sufficient physical or spatial isolation to avoid interference. Both of these situations negatively impact performance and/or impose installation challenges.
It would therefore be desirable to design a system comprising multiple, co-located directional antennas that operate on a single frequency without significant intra-system interference.
In order to maximize bandwidth capacity at a single location, and to allow easier installation, the exemplary embodiments described herein employ multiple panel devices along with processor implemented scheduling software to coordinate communications to and from each panel. This allows multiple co-located panels to dynamically use their sectors in an interference free manner, while being able to operate on a single frequency.
In one aspect of the invention, a panel system is provided. The panel system includes a first panel device having a processor, a transmitter, and a receiver. The first panel device transmits and/or receives a first beam along a first sector chosen from a plurality of first sectors defining a first beam arc. The panel system also includes a second panel device co-located with the first panel device (e.g., located adjacent to the first panel device). The second panel device typically includes a processor, a transmitter, and a receiver such that the second panel device is capable of transmitting and/or receiving a second beam along a second sector chosen from a plurality of second sectors defining a second beam arc. Typically, the first sector is located such that the transmitting and/or receiving of the first beam by the first panel device along the first sector would interfere with the transmitting and/or receiving of the second beam by the second panel device along the second sector. However, such interference is prevented, as the first panel device and second panel device are coordinated in the time domain to prevent the transmitting and/or receiving of the second beam along the second sector when the first panel device is transmitting and/or receiving the first beam along the first sector.
The second panel device of the multi-panel system is typically not prevented from transmitting and/or receiving along any of the plurality of second sectors that do not interfere with the first sector. The first panel device and/or second panel device of the system may include an array of antenna elements. Moreover, the first panel device and/or second panel device of the system may be a directional antenna.
These and other aspects of the invention will be better understood by reading the following detailed description and appended claims.
As described below, the methods and systems of the invention employ multiple panel devices along with processor implemented coordinating software to schedule communications (e.g., transmissions and/or receptions) in the time domain to and from each panel. This allows multiple co-located panels to dynamically send and receive data, without debilitating interference, and despite close proximity. The coordinating programs described herein allow for enhanced efficiency of spectral utilization as well as enhanced quality of service (QoS) through latency controls, rate control and traffic prioritization.
As used throughout, the terms “panel” and “transceiver” are employed interchangeably. Typically, the panels of the invention are capable of transmitting and/or receiving analog and/or digital signals. Moreover, the panels described herein typically comprise a transmitter, a receiver, a memory, a power circuit, and a processor. It is an object of the invention to allow multiple panels to be co-located and interconnected, while preventing interference. For example, multiple panels may be mounted on rooftops, walls, or windows, in such a geometry as to allow for 360° omnidirectional coverage. The panels may be adapted to communicate with any mesh node that is within line-of-sight to the mounting location.
The term “time slot” or “communication slot,” as described herein, refers to a given amount of time during which a panel will send or receive a signal. Although the invention is described in terms of coordinating panel sectors in the time domain, it will be understood that other types of communication spaces may be used, including without limitation, codes, channels, and the like.
Referring to FIG. 1, an exemplary panel 100 which may be used in the embodiments described herein is shown. The panel 100 comprises an array of individual antenna elements (e.g., 120), as shown and described in detail in commonly owned U.S. Pat. No. 7,053,853, the entire contents of which are incorporated herein by reference. The panel 100 may produce a single, directional beam that may be switched in a multitude of directions to connect to various nodes.
In one embodiment, the panel 100 comprises an RF feed circuit, a processor, a transmitter, a receiver, and/or a power circuit. For example, the RF feed circuit of a panel may allow for a beam having the maximum allowable FCC output power of 1 Watt to be produced at 23 dBi of gain. The panel typically operates (i.e., receives and/or transmits) at approximately 5.8 GHz (e.g., frequencies within the UNII band). Moreover, each panel typically includes a processor to facilitate coordination calculations and scheduling information transfer between multiple panel devices as described herein.
One skilled in the art recognizes that the coordinating techniques described herein may be employed with panels having any number of differently configured panels. For example, the particular panel configuration shown in FIG. 1 produces a beam having a horizontal width of about 15 degrees and a vertical width of about 6 degrees. The beam may be steerable across a 90 degree coverage arc by changing the phase of the signal at a panel and the panel design supports a very fine level of granularity in horizontal steering (e.g., a minimum of an about 3° increment).
The exemplary panel of FIG. 1 comprises an M×N array of individual antenna elements (e.g., radiating patches), wherein M=8 and N=5. In other embodiments, the panel device may include antenna elements in arrays of M=1 to 10 by N=1 to 10. In any event, the number of antenna elements in each column typically determines the vertical beam width of the antenna, and the columns are typically spaced one half wavelength apart to provide for optimum side-lobe levels. It will be appreciated that panels comprising any type of radiating elements may be employed in the invention, such as but not limited to those that comprise slots, dipoles or other apertures.
In exemplary panels described in U.S. Pat. No. 7,053,853, an RF signal is fed through a power divider, then phase shifters (to control the beam shape), then an amplifier and T/R (transmit/receive) switch for each of eight element arrays. The output power of the device is equal to the combined output power of the eight elements, which allows for better steering and lower distortion while increasing the delivered output power to the maximum allowable.
Referring to FIG. 2, an exemplary panel system 200 is illustrated comprising four co-located panel devices (A-D), such as the panels shown and described with respect to FIG. 1. As shown, the panels are each able to steer a beam over a 90 degree arc, which is divided into any number of sectors having a given width. For example, the arcs shown in FIG. 2 are divided into eight sectors (0-7), each spanning about 15 degrees in width. Accordingly, when a panel produces a beam having approximately the same width of a sector, the panel may be said to “use” that sector when it transmits or receives a beam along that sector. In the illustrated exemplary embodiment, the panel (e.g., Panel A) produces a 15 degree wide beam, which may be directed along any of sectors 0-7.
It will be recognized that, although eight sectors are shown, the invention is not so limited. Typically, the number of sectors will relate to the width of the beam produced by a panel and the total arc used by the panel. For example, if a panel produces a 30 degree wide beam and is capable of steering the beam across a 90 degree arc, the arc may be split into three sectors, each spanning about 30 degrees.
In any event, as shown, each of the panel devices (A-D) are physically independent from one another, but are located in close proximity. In fact, the coordination methods of the invention allow for multiple panels to be separated by less than 10 ft., less than 5 ft., less than 2 ft., or even less than a 1 ft, without the need for significant RF isolation or the need for each panel to operate on a different frequency (although either or both may be implemented in exemplary systems). One skilled in the art recognizes that, while four panels are co-located in the present example, the co-location of fewer or greater individual panel devices is possible.
Typically, the panels (A-D) are employed in a geometry that allows for the transmittal and/or reception of beams by a first panel that have the potential to interfere with adjacent panels. For example, in the illustrated embodiment, signals emitted along sector 7 of Panel A (A7) and sector 0 of Panel B (B0) are capable of interfering with each other because of their close proximity. By contrast, signals emitted and/or received along sectors A7 and B3 would not typically interfere with each other, because of the distance and direction of these sectors.
Accordingly, the panels must be coordinated as to prevent the panels from transmitting and/or receiving along conflicting sectors at the same time. The programs of the invention coordinate operation of the panel system 200, including the individual panel devices therein (A-D), to prevent this type of interfering operation. In one embodiment, usage of each sectors is only allowed during a scheduled time slot. For instance, when Panel A communicates on its sector A7, Panel B would be prevented from using its sector B0, but would be allowed to transmit or receive a signal on a non-interfering sector such as, for example, sector B3.
In order to properly coordinate the multiple panels of a system, certain panel geometries are typically implemented. First, the panels (A-D) are positioned such that a sector only interferes with one or more sectors of a single other panel. Stated another way, a single sector will not interfere with sectors of multiple panels. As an example, if sector A7 interferes with B0, then sector A7 should not interfere with any sectors of Panel C or Panel D.
The panels are also positioned such that not every sector of a first panel interferes with every sector of an adjacent panel. Therefore, the panel systems will comprise adjacently located panels having one or more interference-free sectors. As an example, Panel B will comprise at least one sector (e.g., B3) that does not interfere with at least one sector of Panel A (e.g., A7). Moreover, because adjacent sectors on different panels (e.g, B0 and A7) are capable of operating at similar or identical frequencies, each panel is typically coordinated with at least two other panels. For example, Panel B will be coordinated with at least Panels A and C.
In order to carry out effective coordinating via time slot scheduling (described in detail below), each of the coordinated panels will typically share a synchronized clock. It will be appreciated that such synchronization is required to accurately schedule emission/transmission for each panel during a particular time slot.
In addition to the above panel geometries, the coordination of panels is typically determined according to a number of simplifying assumptions. For example, the system may assume that interference caused by additive signals (i.e., a signal comprising two or more signals from different source panels) is negligible. Accordingly, in one embodiment, the system does not account for additive signals when coordinating panels. For example, an additive signal comprising noise from sectors 7 of Panel B and sector 0 of Panel D would not be taken into account when coordinating sector 3 of Panel C. Although it is preferred to employ such a simplifying assumption to reduce processing power requirements and processing time, in some embodiments, any additive signals may, in fact, be considered when coordinating panels.
In one embodiment, each of the above panel geometries and simplifying assumptions may be tested prior to deployment. The panels of the system are typically able to test each other in order to determine if they are sufficiently isolated, and this testing is determined through either an automatic sequence test or a manual configuration.
In order to coordinate the transmission and/or emission along sectors of multiple panels, the panels (A-D) are generally capable of communicating and exchanging data with each other. In one embodiment, the panel system 200 initiates a data exchange process when the system is powered up, wherein each individual panel device (A-D) discovers the existence, location, and/or other panel information of the other panel devices in the system through frame exchanges. The data exchange process is typically automatically initiated upon power-up of the system 200, before transmissions to non-co-located panels are made, but may alternatively or additionally be initiated manually or as part of the normal operation of the panel data exchanges.
During the data exchange processes, the panel devices (A-D) exchange panel information, such as but not limited to which sectors (0-7) are being utilized, whether the sectors interfere with those of adjacent panels, and the utilization rate desired or required for each sector. Moreover, the signal quality between each of the panels (A-D) may be determined and communicated.
In certain embodiments, the data exchange is performed among panels using broadcast messages, but in a preferred embodiment, a three-way handshake adjacent panels is employed. Of course, there are many implementations for executing data exchanges between multiple panels, and in one embodiment, a two-way handshake could alternatively be used.
An exemplary three-way handshake is described in detail below, where a first panel (Panel 1) negotiates the parameters of the network TCP socket connection before beginning communication with a second panel (Panel 2). The three-way handshake includes a Demand Info Tx from Panel 1 to Panel 2 desiring to use the same sector. For purposes of orientation and coordination, as between two panels, the initiating panel may be determined based on left-right location (i.e., the panel to the right is always Panel 1). Alternatively, the panel with the lowest MAC address may be designated Panel 1.
The Demand Info Tx includes, but is not limited to, the data show in Table 1 from Panel 1, and is typically in the form of an XML message:
In response to a received Demand Info Tx from Panel A, Panel B responds with a Demand Info Rx that includes, but is not limited to, the data shown in Table 2.
Once Panel 1 receives the Demand Info Rx from Panel 2, Panel 1 sends an Acknowledgement Message. In one embodiment, the Acknowledgement Message may simply contain the IDM.
Importantly, the Local and Remote Sector interference information seen by Panel 1 may not be the same as the Local and Remote Sector interference information seen by Panel 2. If this is the case, the coordination program may take the maximum interference and coordinate based on this information.
In a preferred implementation, an explicit start time is not included in the messages, because it is implied that start time will always be the next To after the acknowledgement is received. However, in an alternative embodiment, an explicit start time may be communicated and set in the Demand Info Rx or Tx as the next integer second (or some set number of seconds, e.g., 5 seconds) based on, for example, the global GPS second system.
Once communication is established, and interfering sectors are identified (e.g., A7 and B0), the desired sector utilization rate for the panels (e.g., Panel A and Panel B) competing for the time slots on the interfering sectors is exchanged between the panels. For example, if Panel A and Panel B each desire to transmit data along sector A7 and B7, respectively, the two panels will exchange data (e.g., an integer value) corresponding to the demand for that sector.
The processor implemented coordinating programs described herein schedule data transmission and/or reception (including phase selection) within time slots to avoid the contention of data, which enables the operation of more than one panel device in a panel system at a given frequency, without interference. As described above, the panels exchange each of their demands for the conflicting sectors, indicating how much time they need to use the conflicting sectors. Using the exchanged time-based demands, the processors of the respective panels may run the coordinating programs of the invention to dynamically adjust sector usage without requiring transaction by transaction negotiation. The pseudo-real-time demand information exchange between panels thus allows for real-time adjustments based on sector demand.
In one embodiment, the sharing or coordination of time slots within conflicting sectors is scheduled based on “ time on the air.” This means that if, for example, two panels have equal demands on the conflicting sectors, they will evenly share time regardless of modulation. For instance, if two panels have an equal time demand, then a panel with 6 mbps links on the correlated sectors will get 3 mbps and a panel with 18 mbps links will get 9 mbps. Alternatively, the coordination can account for modulation and data transmission.
A more preferred embodiment is now discussed and is further described in Equations 1 and 2, below. As shown, each panel (Panel A and Panel B) determines a rate at which integer boundaries are crossed, and transmits and/or receives at calculated time slots. The calculation is typically based on an integer counter (i), which is first multiplied by a first panels' time demand value (“TA(i.e., the time Panel A needs to use the conflicting sector). This value is then divided by the sum of the time demands of the first panel (“TA ”) and second panel (“TB ”). The second panel (Panel B) performs the same calculation, and the panels employ the computed counter values that do not cross an integer boundary.
Panel A transmits and/or receives when: the intger value of (TA*i)/(TA+TB) is not equal to the integer value of (TA*(i−1))/(TA+TB)); where i=0, 1, 2, 3, etc. Equation 1
Panel B transmits and/or receives when: the intger value of (TA*i)/(TA+TB) is equal to the integer value of (TA*(i−1))/(TA+TB); where i=0, 1, 2, 3, etc. Equation 2
Generally, the time demand values (TA and TB) are normalized (e.g., percent of total time required*100, or number of slots needed out of 100). For instance, a panel with only traffic on a conflicting sector, but that only has 50% load, could send data during 50 out of 100 time slots (i.e., normalized over 100), while another panel with 100% utilization but only 25% on the conflicting sector would send data along that sector during 25 out of the 100 possible time slots.
In one particular example, if Panel A requires sector A7 25% of the time, and Panel B requires sector B0 50% of the time, Panel A would have opportunities to use time slots 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, etc., while Panel B would be able to use time slots 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, etc. To fairly distribute the time, multiple slot beats will count as multiple uses (e.g., a 1600 μs transmission would count twice as much as a 800 μs transmission).
The coordinating programs described herein may be used to assign time slots based solely on demand, without regard to fairness. However, in alternative embodiments, fairness may be considered. For instance, if one panel needs a conflicting sector 100% of the time, and another panel needs the corresponding conflicting sector 50% of the time, the results of the program may assign ⅔ of the time slots to the first panel and ⅓ of the time slots to the second panel, rather than ½ and ½. While this may seem unfair, the panels are assumed to be part of the same system, so there is no reason why traffic on a lightly utilized panel should be preferred over traffic on a highly utilized panel.
In one embodiment, the coordinating program enables the panels to grant recurring time slots, which means that panels can be granted extended rights to communicate using a given sector during certain time slots. This is useful for providing higher classes of service for applications like Voice over IP (VoIP).
While the coordinating process described above is performed in a distributed fashion, the invention is not so limited. Alternatively, systems are envisioned wherein a single processor on a panel is designated as the master and performs scheduling for all panels in the panel system. And in a further embodiment, a wholly separate processor may be employed to perform the coordinating processes.
Referring to FIG. 3, a schematic illustrates an exemplary implementation of a panel system 350 within a larger wide area network (WAN) system 330. The panel system 350 communicates with multiple mesh networks (301, 311, 321), also called neighborhood area networks (NANs). As shown with respect to mesh network A 301, each of the NANs comprises multiple nodes, such as but not limited to, meters (302-307) and at least one mesh gate 308. Mesh networks B 311 and C 321 are also shown in communication with the WAN system 330 through their respective mesh gates (312, 322).
It will be appreciated that the mesh gates (308, 312, 322) are the access points to the meters (e.g. 302-307) within their individual mesh networks and bridge their individual mesh networks to the WAN 330. A mesh gate may also be referred to as an access point or a Neighborhood Area Network to Wide Area Network (NAN-WAN) gate. The mesh gate may perform anyone or more of many different functions including, for example, but not limited to, one or any combination of: relaying information from a server (such as to a back end server 340) to the mesh network nodes, routing information, aggregating information from the nodes within any sub-network that may be configured for transmission to a server (such as to the back end server), acting as a home area network (HAN) sometimes also referred to as a premise area network (PAN) coordinator, acting as a NAN-WAN gate, transmitting firmware upgrades, and/or multicasting messages. The mesh gate may also be referred to as a collector because it collects information from the NAN-associated nodes or other nodes in its subnetwork. A mesh gate may include a mesh radio to communicate with mesh devices over the mesh network and a WAN communication interface to communicate with the Panel System 350.
The mesh gate may provide a gateway between the mesh network A and a server 340. The server 340 can also act as a back end. The server 340 can provide services to mesh devices, such as commissioning devices, providing software updates, providing metering pricing updates, receiving metering information, etc. The mesh gate may aggregate information from mesh devices (e.g., meters) within the mesh network and transmit the information to the server 340. The mesh gate may further forward messages from the mesh devices to the server 340, for example, status reports and meter readings. The mesh gate may further forward messages from the server 340 to the mesh devices, for example, instructions and queries. The server 340 may be a computing device configured to receive information, such as meter readings, from a plurality of mesh networks and meters. The server 340 may also be configured to transmit instructions to the mesh networks, mesh gates, and meters. It will be appreciated that while only one server is depicted, any number of servers may be used. For example, servers may be distributed by geographical location. Redundant servers may provide backup and failover capabilities in the AMI system.
The extenders 360, in combination with the panel system 350, extend the reach of the mesh gates (308, 312, 322) and relay information to/from the NANs (301, 312, 322) through the WAN 320 to the back-end server(s) 340. The extenders 360 may demand slots from panel system 350.
While FIG. 3 illustrates three mesh networks (301, 311, 321), each with a single mesh gate (308, 312, 322) communicating with a respective one of extenders (361, 362, 363), the invention is not so limited, and there need not be such a 1:1 ratio of mesh gates to extenders. Rather, multiple mesh gates (308, 312, 322) may communicate with a single extender 360. Similarly, information from a single mesh gate (308, 312, 322) may hop across multiple extenders (361, 362, 363) before reaching the panel system 350. Further still, the WAN 330 may comprise any number of panel systems 350. In one embodiment, the nodes that make up the WAN 330 may communicate using IEEE 802.11 b, g, and/or n physical and link layer standards.
Referring to FIG. 4, an exemplary use for the panel system 450 is illustrated. As shown, a WAN 430 comprises a panel system 450 in communication with multiple extenders 460. The WAN 430 is in communication with a broadband provider 490, which provides broadband internet service to customers. The broadband provider 490 communicates with broadband antennas 480 located at individual customer premises through the WAN 430. Specifically, the panel system 450 may is employed to transmit and/or receive data to/from each of the broadband antennas 480.
Referring to FIG. 5, another exemplary use for the panel system 550 is illustrated. As shown, a plurality of directional connectors 590 are disposed around the panel system 550 to provide internet capabilities to consumers. In one embodiment, the multiple directional connectors 590 may be coordinated such that they may provide 360 degree omnidirectional transmission and/or reception capabilities without substantial intra-system interference.
In certain embodiments, panels having conflicting sectors will divide time slot usage regardless of whether the sector is needed for upstream or downstream communications. In these embodiments, the panel to extender (FIGS. 3 and 4) and panel to coordinator (FIG. 5) communications protocol is typically limited to bi-directional data exchanges, meaning there is no ability to share time slots based on Tx/Tx or Rx/Rx due to the lack of unidirectional sectors in the MAC layer. Of course, the invention is not so limited. For systems wherein the communications protocol is unidirectional (i.e., certain sectors are designated for transmitting or receiving only), the sectors may be shared such that separate data packets may be transmitted simultaneously along the same Tx sector, essentially sharing the sector, and similarly, separate data packets may be received simultaneously from the same Rx sector, essentially sharing the sector.
Further, in certain embodiments, the panel systems and/or children thereto (e.g., extenders, connectors, etc.) may be programmed in various ways in order to implement a preferred panel process, wherein if the specified panel is available, a child will connect through it. Otherwise, the child will connect via the best route, according to its normal frequency and domain algorithm to a next best panel. Identification of the preferred panel may be by its MAC address. Further still, information regarding the level of sector interference and/or sector availability may be shared between panel systems and/or children such that there is efficient use of sectors and minimization of interference, where possible. For example, in a specific scenario, individual panels may recognize sector availability and implement a process for initiating communication with a child that might otherwise be communicating via an interfering sector of the panel in a shared configuration.
Unless specifically stated otherwise as apparent from the following discussion, it is appreciated that throughout the description, discussions utilizing terms such as “processing” or “computing” or “calculating” or “determining” or “displaying” or the like, can refer to the action and processes of a data processing system, or similar electronic device, that manipulates and transforms data represented as physical (electronic) quantities within the system's registers and memories into other data similarly represented as physical quantities within the system's memories or registers or other such information storage, transmission or display devices.
The exemplary embodiments can relate to an apparatus for performing one or more of the functions described herein. This apparatus may be specially constructed for the required purposes, or it may comprise a general purpose computer selectively activated or reconfigured by a computer program stored in the computer. Such a computer program may be stored in a machine (e.g. computer) readable storage medium, such as, but is not limited to, any type of disk including floppy disks, optical disks, CD-ROMs and magnetic-optical disks, read only memories (ROMs), random access memories (RAMs) erasable programmable ROMs (EPROMs), electrically erasable programmable ROMs (EEPROMs), magnetic or optical cards, or any type of media suitable for storing electronic instructions, and each coupled to a bus.
Some exemplary embodiments described herein are described as software executed on at least one computer, though it is understood that embodiments can be configured in other ways and retain functionality. The embodiments can be implemented on known devices such as a server, a personal computer, a special purpose computer, a programmed microprocessor or microcontroller and peripheral integrated circuit element(s), and ASIC or other integrated circuit, a digital signal processor, a hard-wired electronic or logic circuit such as a discrete element circuit, or the like. In general, any device capable of implementing the processes described herein can be used to implement the systems and techniques according to this invention.
It is to be appreciated that the various components of the technology can be located at distant portions of a distributed network and/or the internet, or within a dedicated secure, unsecured and/or encrypted system. Thus, it should be appreciated that the components of the system can be combined into one or more devices or co-located on a particular node of a distributed network, such as a telecommunications network. As will be appreciated from the description, and for reasons of computational efficiency, the components of the system can be arranged at any location within a distributed network without affecting the operation of the system. Moreover, the components could be embedded in a dedicated machine.
Furthermore, it should be appreciated that the various links connecting the elements can be wired or wireless links, or any combination thereof, or any other known or later developed element(s) that is capable of supplying and/or communicating data to and from the connected elements. The terms determine, calculate and compute, and variations thereof, as used herein are used interchangeably and include any type of methodology, process, mathematical operation or technique.
The invention described and claimed herein is not to be limited in scope by the specific embodiments herein disclosed since these embodiments are intended as illustrations of several aspects of the invention. Any equivalent embodiments are intended to be within the scope of this invention. Indeed, various modifications of the invention in addition to those shown and described herein will become apparent to those skilled in the art from the foregoing description. Such modifications are also intended to fall within the scope of the appended claims. All publications cited herein are incorporated by reference in their entirety.