Imported: 21 Feb '17 | Published: 01 Mar '05
USPTO - Utility Patents
Synthesis of 2,6-dicarbonylpyridines in solution in a hydrocarbon medium is described. The solutions of 2,6-dicarbonylpyridines may be used directly in further syntheses.
This application is a division of U.S. application Ser. No. 10/107,648 now abandoned, filed Mar. 27, 2002.
This invention relates to the synthesis of 2,6-dicarbonylpyridine dihalides and to conversion of such dihalides to 2,6-dicarbonylpyridines. More specifically, this invention relates to the synthesis of 2,6-diacetylpyridine.
2,6-diacetylpyridine has been prepared from reaction of pyridine 2,6-dicarboxylic acid diethyl ester and ethyl acetate in the presence of sodium ethoxide, ethanol and xylene. See Lukes, et al., Collect. Czech Chem. Commun. 24:36 (1959). A 55% to 57% yield for this reaction is reported by Terentew, et al., Zh. Vses. Khim. Ova im. D. I. Mendeleeva 6:116 (1961) (Abstract), CAOLD Abstract CA 55:144501. An analogous, presently commercial, multi-step synthesis is generally illustrated by Equation 1:
2,6-diacetylpyridine in about 50% yield may be extracted by solvent exchange from the reaction mixture.
Yamamoto, Chem. Pharm. Bull. 43:1028-1030 (1995) reports a 59% yield of 2,6-diacetylpyridine by reaction of 2,6-bis(trimethyl stannyl) pyridine with 2-oxo-propenyl chloride. Reaction of 2,6-pyridine carbonyl chloride with methyl lithium in the presence of CuI at −78° C. in THF is said to provide a 93% yield of 2,6-diacetylpyridine. Jiang, et al., Tetrahedron Lett. 37(6):797-800 (1996). Organocupritic intermediates decompose rapidly if a uniform low temperature, impractical in a large reactor, is not maintained.
There is a need for a cost effective synthesis free of low temperature parameters that provides a high yield of 2,6-diacetylpyridine in a reaction mixture which may but need not be used directly in further syntheses.
Pursuant to one specific aspect of the invention, a 2,6-pyridine dicarboxylic acid is converted to a corresponding 2,6-dicarbonyl dichloride in hydrocarbon solution. The dichloride is converted in situ to a 2,6-pyridine-bis(2-alkoxyalkyl) carboxamide. The carboxamide may be treated sequentially first with a hydrocarbyl alkali metal salt, and thereafter with a trialkyl silicon halide. Treatment of the consequent reaction mixture with water yields a biphasic solution comprising an aqueous bottom layer and an organic top layer containing the desired 2,6-dicarbonylpyridine. An additional quantity of 2,6-dicarbonylpyridine may be recovered from the aqueous layer by extraction with toluene.
Pursuant to a typical first step of the invention, a 2,6-pyridine dicarboxylic acid is converted in known manner to any corresponding 2,6-pyridine dicarboxylic dihalide, preferably a dichloride. For example, the 2,6-pyridine dicarboxylic acid may be treated with a sulfonyl halide, such as sulfonyl chloride, in a hydrocarbon medium, preferably toluene, for a time and under conditions effective to yield a solution of the corresponding 2,6-pyridine dicarboxylic acid dihalide in the hydrocarbon medium.
The hydrocarbon medium solution of 2,6-pyridine dicarboxylic acid dihalide may be taken up in a C1 to C5 alkyl halide, preferably methylene chloride, medium and treated with a bis(2-alkoxyalkyl) amine, preferably bis(2-methoxyethyl) amine, and a C1 to C5 trialkyl amine to produce a reaction mixture comprising 2,6-pyridine dicarboxamide in a mixed hydrocarbon and alkyl halide medium. The bis(2-alkoxyalkyl) amine and the trialkyl amine are preferably premixed but may be added separately in any desired sequence. The alkyl halide component of this mixed medium may be stripped from the reaction mixture to provide a solution of the 2,6-pyridine dicarboxamide in the residual hydrocarbon.
A second step of the invention may comprise treatment of the hydrocarbon solution of 2,6-pyridine dicarboxamide from the first step with an alkyl or aryl alkali metal salt having the formula RM, in which R comprises any alkyl or aryl group and M comprises any alkali metal. Preferably, R comprises a C1 to C6 alkyl group or a C6 to C10 substituted or unsubstituted aryl group. Methyllithium is preferred. A typical second step reaction is illustrated by Equation 2:
The reaction of the carboxamide with the alkali metal salt proceeds in two stages.
In a first stage, the exotherm may be controlled to provide a pot temperature range of −25° C. to −15° C. The pot temperature of the first stage reaction mixture is preferably adjusted to and maintained at a temperature of −10° C. to −30° C. for a short time, for example, for 15 to 45 minutes, and thereafter cooled to a pot temperature in the range of −10° C. to −20° C. The cooled first stage reaction mixture may be treated with any desired trialkylsilyl halide, typically trimethylsilyl chloride (TMSCl), in a hydrocarbon medium as the consequent exotherm is controlled to provide and maintain a pot temperature in the range of −10° C. to 10° C.
The second stage reaction is generally illustrated by Equation 3:
The second stage reaction mixture is a slurry in the first stage hydrocarbon medium. It may be transferred to a separate vessel containing iced water as the exotherm is controlled to provide and maintain a pot temperature of 0° C. to 15° C. The reaction is illustrated by Equation 4:
The pot temperature of the consequent biphasic solution comprising an aqueous bottom layer and an organic top layer may be adjusted to room temperature. The organic top layer comprises a hydrocarbon solution of the desired 2,6-dicarbonylpyridine. The aqueous bottom layer may be separated and washed with toluene to provide an extract containing an additional quantity of 2,6-dicarbonylpyridine which may be added to the separated organic top layer. Yields from the last step range from 85% to 90% by weight based on the 2,6-dicarboxylic acid starting material. Overall yields of 2,6-dicarbonylpyridine from all three steps typically are 80-83% by weight.
Step 1: Synthesis of 2,6-Pyridine Dicarboxamide
A 5 L flask, charged with 2,6-pyridine dicarboxylic acid (167 g, 1 mol), toluene (400 mL), and thionyl chloride (594 g, 5 mol), was refluxed. The excess thionyl chloride was atmospherically stripped so that the pot temperature was held at 120° C. to 130° C. for 30 minutes. Toluene (1 L) was added back, and the mixture was atmospherically stripped to remove most of the thionyl chloride. See Equation 5:
In the reaction illustrated by Equation 5, any pyridine dicarboxylic acid in which the carbonyl groups have from 1 to 10 carbon atoms may be used. The two carbonyl groups may be at any available pyridine ring position. Ring positions not occupied by carbonyl groups may have any other desired substituents. C1 to C10 alkyl substituents are preferred.
The intermediate 2,6-pyridine diacetyl chloride (in about 200-300 mL of toluene) was cooled to room temperature and taken up into CH2Cl2 (1 L). The yield of 2,6-diacetyl chloride was quantitative.
The CH2Cl2 solution was cooled (−20° C.), and treated with a premixed solution of bis(2-methoxyethyl) amine (270 g, 2.03 mol) and triethylamine (253 g, 2.5 mol) as fast as the exotherm would allow (−20° C. to +10° C.). After the addition was completed, the slurry was agitated for 30 minutes at room temperature. Water (1 L) was added to the slurry, the organic top layer was separated, the aqueous bottom layer was washed with CH2Cl2 (3×400 mL washes), the combined extracts were dried over sodium sulfate, and filtered. The filtrate was atmospherically stripped to remove all of the CH2Cl2, leaving behind a toluene solution (30-40 wt %) of the 2,6-pyridine dicarboxamide. The yield of 2,6-pyridine dicarboxamide was 93-97% by weight.
Any bis(2-alkoxyalkyl) amine in which the alkoxy or alkyl groups each separately may have from 1 to 10 carbon atoms and any trialkylamine in which the alkyl groups have from 1 to 8 carbon atoms may be used. For example, bis(2-methoxyethyl)amine could be chosen.
Step 2: Conversion of 2,6-pyridine dicarboxamide to 2,6-diacetylpyridine
The step 1 reaction mixture (2,6-pyridine dicarboxamide) (372 g as a 35 wt % solution in toluene, 0.937 mol) was cooled (−25° C.) and MeLi (1.4 M, 1.97 mol, 2.1 equivalents, 1.4 L) was added as fast as the exotherm would allow (temperature range −25° C. to −15° C.). After the addition, the solution was warmed to −10° C. to −5° C. for 30 minutes, the solution was cooled (−10° C.), and treated with trimethylsilyl chloride (TMSCl (611 g, 5.62 mol)) (see Equation 3) as fast as the exotherm would allow (−10° C. to +10° C. The resulting slurry was warmed to room temperature for 30 minutes and cooled (−10° C.). The slurry was transferred to a flask containing iced water (1.5 L) as fast as the exotherm maintained at 0° C. to 15° C. would allow. The biphasic solution was warmed to room temperature, the organic top layer was separated, the aqueous bottom layer was washed (3×350 mL) with toluene, and the combined extracts were dried over sodium sulfate and filtered. The filtrate was atmospherically stripped to remove hexamethyldisiloxane which resulted from the reaction of trimethylsilyl chloride with water (Equation 6):
2 Me3SiCl+H2O →Me3SiOSiMe3+2 HCl EQUATION 6
Any alkyl or aryl alkali metal salt heretofore described may be used instead of methyllithium. Any desired trialkyl silicon halide may be used instead of trimethylsilyl chloride.