Synthesis, Antimicrobial Activity and Micellization of Gemini Anionic Surfactants in a Pure State as Well as Mixed With a Conventional Nonionic Surfactant

Research paper by Fatma H. Abd El-Salam

Indexed on: 03 Sep '09Published on: 03 Sep '09Published in: Journal of Surfactants and Detergents


New gemini anionic surfactants were prepared from sodium salts of monoalkyl sulfosuccinate esters of ethylene glycol having variably long tails (C12, C16, C18) and dichloroethane. The chemical structures of the prepared surfactants were confirmed using different spectroscopic techniques. The surfaces tension values of the synthesized surfactants were measured at 25 °C individually or mixing at different molar fractions with ethoxylated alkylphenol. In all cases, mixed micellar aggregates were formed and critical micellar concentrations of binary mixtures containing different mole fractions of the surfactants were measured. The micellization processes of the individual and mixed surfactants were investigated. The effect of different alkyl chains of gemini anionic surfactants on properties of binary systems and molar ratio in the mixed aggregates were deduced. The critical micelle concentration of mixed surfactants shifted to lower values compared to those of the single surfactants. Effectiveness values increased with decreases in the mole fraction of gemini anionic surfactants. The negative values of interaction parameter (β) increased with increases in the chain length of anionic surfactants. The activity coefficient (f1, f2) and total minimum surface area of mixed solution were calculated. Also, the gemini anionic surfactants prepared have moderate antimicrobial activity towards bacteria and not active towards fungi.