Indexed on: 19 Nov '14Published on: 19 Nov '14Published in: Annals of surgery
To compare surgical versus medical treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remission and comorbidities in patients with a body mass index (BMI) less than 35 kg/m2.Obesity surgery can achieve remission of T2DM and its comorbidities. Metabolic surgery has been proposed as a treatment option for diabetic patients with BMI less than 35 kg/m2 but the efficacy of metabolic surgery has not been conclusively determined.A systematic literature search identified randomized (RCT) and nonrandomized comparative observational clinical studies (OCS) evaluating surgical versus medical T2DM treatment in patients with BMI less than 35 kg/m2. The primary outcome was T2DM remission. Additional analyses comprised glycemic control, BMI, HbA1c level, remission of comorbidities, and safety. Random effects meta-analyses were calculated and presented as weighted odds ratio (OR) or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI).Five RCTs and 6 OCSs (706 total T2DM patients) were included. Follow-up ranged from 12 to 36 months. Metabolic surgery was associated with a higher T2DM remission rate (OR: 14.1, 95% CI: 6.7-29.9, P < 0.001), higher rate of glycemic control (OR: 8.0, 95% CI: 4.2-15.2, P < 0.001) and lower HbA1c level (MD: -1.4%, 95% CI -1.9% to -0.9%, P < 0.001) than medical treatment.-5.5 kg/m2, 95% CI: -6.7 to -4.3 kg/m2, P < 0.001), rate of arterial hypertension (OR: 0.25, 95% CI: 0.12-0.50, P < 0.001) and dyslipidemia (OR: 0.21, 95% CI: 0.10-0.44, P < 0.001) were lower after surgery.Metabolic surgery is superior to medical treatment for short-term remission of T2DM and comorbidities. Further RCTs should address the long-term effects on T2DM complications and mortality.