Indexed on: 12 Apr '16Published on: 12 Apr '16Published in: International Immunopharmacology
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play significant roles in recognizing the pathogen-associated molecular patterns that induce innate immunity, and subsequently, acquired immunity. In general, TLRs have two downstream signaling pathways, the myeloid differential factor 88 (MyD88)-dependent and toll-interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF)-dependent pathways, which lead to the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). 1-[5-methoxy-2-(2-nitrovinyl)phenyl]pyrrolidine (MNP) has been previously synthesized in our laboratory. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of MNP, its effect on signal transduction via the TLR signaling pathways was examined. MNP was shown to inhibit the activation of NF-κB and IRF3 induced by TLR agonists, as well as to inhibit the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and interferon inducible protein-10. MNP also inhibited the activation of NF-κB and IRF3 induced by the overexpression of downstream signaling components of the MyD88- or TRIF-dependent signaling pathways. These results suggest that MNP can modulate MyD88- and TRIF-dependent signaling pathways of TLRs, leading to decreased inflammatory gene expression.