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Structure and synthesis of 6-(substituted-imidazol-1-yl)purines: versatile substrates for regiospecific alkylation and glycosylation at N9.

Research paper by Minghong M Zhong, Ireneusz I Nowak, John F JF Cannon, Morris J MJ Robins

Indexed on: 20 May '06Published on: 20 May '06Published in: Journal of Organic Chemistry



Abstract

X-ray crystal structures of several 6-(azolyl)purine base and nucleoside derivatives show essentially coplanar conformations of the purine and appended 6-(azolyl) rings. However, the planes of the purine and imidazole rings are twisted approximately 57 degrees in a 2-chloro-6-(4,5-diphenylimidazol-1-yl)purine nucleoside, and a twist angle of approximately 61 degrees was measured between the planes of the purine and pyrrole rings in the structure of a 6-(2,5-dimethylpyrrol-1-yl)purine nucleoside derivative. Shielding "above" N7 of the purine ring by a proximal C-H on the 6-azolyl moiety is apparent with the coplanar compounds, but this effect is diminished in those without coplanarity. Syntheses of 6-(azolyl)purines from both base and nucleoside starting materials are described. Treatment of 2,6-dichloropurine with imidazole gave 2-chloro-6-(imidazol-1-yl)purine. Modified Appel reactions at C6 of trityl-protected hypoxanthine and guanine derivatives followed by detritylation gave 6-(imidazol-1-yl)- and 2-amino-6-(imidazol-1-yl)purines. Imidazole was introduced at C6 of 2',3',5'-tri-O-acetylinosine by a modified Appel reaction, and solvolysis of the glycosyl linkage gave 6-(imidazol-1-yl)purine. Guanosine triacetate was transformed into the protected 2,6-dichloropurine nucleoside, which was subjected to S(N)Ar displacement with imidazoles at C6 followed by glycosyl solvolysis to provide 2-chloro-6-(substituted-imidazol-1-yl)purines. Potential applications of these purine derivatives are outlined.