Indexed on: 22 Aug '15Published on: 22 Aug '15Published in: PloS one
The (-)- and (+)-clausenamide (CLA) enantiomers have different pharmacokinetic effects in animals, but their association with putative stereoselective regulation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) remains unclear. Using three cells expressing P-gp-Caco-2, KBv and rat brain microvessel endothelial cells(RBMEC), this study investigated the association of CLA enantiomers with P-gp. The results showed that the rhodamine 123 (Rh123) accumulation, an indicator of P-gp activity, in Caco-2, KBv and RBMECs was increased by (-)CLA (1 or 5 μmol/L) at 8.2%-28.5%, but reduced by (+)CLA at 11.7%-25.9%, showing stereoselectivity in their regulation of P-gp activity. Following co-treatment of these cells with each CLA enantiomer and verapamil as a P-gp inhibitor, the (+)-isomer clearly antagonized the inhibitory effects of verapamil on P-gp efflux, whereas the (-)-isomer had slightly synergistic or additive effects. When higher concentrations (5 or 10 μmol/L) of CLA enantiomers were added, the stimulatory effects of the (+)-isomer were converted into inhibitory ones, leading to an enhanced intracellular uptake of Rh123 by 24.5%-58.2%; but (-)-isomer kept its inhibition to P-gp activity, causing 30.0%-63.0% increase in the Rh123 uptake. The biphasic effects of (+)CLA were confirmed by CLA uptake in the Caco-2 cells. (+)CLA at 1 μmol/L had significantly lower intracellular uptake than (-)CLA with a ratio[(-)/(+)] of 2.593, which was decreased to 2.167 and 1.893 after CLA concentrations increased to 2.5 and 5 μmol/L. Besides, in the non-induced KB cells, (+)CLA(5 μmol/L) upregulated P-gp expression at 54.5% relative to vehicle control, and decreased Rh123 accumulation by 28.2%, while (-)CLA(5 μmol/L) downregulated P-gp expression at 15.9% and increased Rh123 accumulation by 18.0%. These results suggested that (-)CLA could be a P-gp inhibitor and (+)CLA could be a modulator with concentration-dependent biphasic effects on P-gp activity, which may result in drug-drug interactions when combined with other P-gp substrate drugs.