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Stable reflexive sheaves and localization

Research paper by Amin Gholampour, Martijn Kool

Indexed on: 14 Sep '15Published on: 14 Sep '15Published in: Mathematics - Algebraic Geometry



Abstract

We study moduli spaces $\mathcal{N}$ of rank 2 stable reflexive sheaves on $\mathbb{P}^3$. Fixing Chern classes $c_1$, $c_2$, and summing over $c_3$, we consider the generating function $\mathsf{Z}^{\mathrm{refl}}(q)$ of Euler characteristics of such moduli spaces. The action of the dense open torus $T$ on $\mathbb{P}^3$ lifts to $\mathcal{N}$ and we classify all sheaves in $\mathcal{N}^T$. This leads to an explicit expression for $\mathsf{Z}^{\mathrm{refl}}(q)$. Since $c_3$ is bounded below and above, $\mathsf{Z}^{\mathrm{refl}}(q)$ is a polynomial. For $c_1=-1$, we show its leading term is $12c_2 q^{c_{2}^{2}}$. Next, we study moduli spaces of rank 2 stable torsion free sheaves on $\mathbb{P}^3$ and consider the generating function $\mathsf{Z}(q)$ of Euler characteristics of such moduli spaces. We give an expression for this generating function in terms of $\mathsf{Z}^{\mathrm{refl}}(q)$ and Euler characteristics of Quot schemes of certain $T$-equivariant reflexive sheaves. These Quot schemes and their fixed point loci are studied in a sequel with B. Young. The components of these fixed point loci are products of $\mathbb{P}^1$'s and give rise non-trivial combinatorics. For $c_1=-1$ and $c_2=1$, we obtain $\mathsf{Z}(q) = 4(q+q^{-1}) M(q^{-2})^8$, where $M(q)$ is the MacMahon function. Many techniques of this paper apply to any toric 3-fold. In general, $\mathsf{Z}^{\mathrm{refl}}(q)$ depends on the choice of polarization which leads to wall-crossing phenomena. We briefly illustrate this in the case of $\mathbb{P}^2 \times \mathbb{P}^1$.