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Stable and solid pellets of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes produced under high pressure and temperature

Research paper by Pâmela Andréa Mantey dos Santos, Marcia Russman Gallas, Cláudio Radtke, Edilson Valmir Benvenutti, Ana Laura Elias, Lakshmy Pulickal Rajukumar, Humberto Terrones, Morinobu Endo, Mauricio Terrones, Tania Maria Haas Costa

Indexed on: 02 Jun '15Published on: 02 Jun '15Published in: Journal of Nanoparticle Research



Abstract

High pressure/temperature was applied on samples of pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), functionalized nanotubes (f-MWCNT), and nanotubes doped with nitrogen (CNxMWNT). Cylindrical compact pellets of f-MWCNT with diameters of about 6 mm were obtained under pressure of 4.0 GPa at room temperature and at 400 °C, using graphite as pressure transmitting medium. The best pellet samples were produced using nitric and sulfuric acids for the functionalization of MWCNT. The effect of high pressure/temperature on CNT was investigated by several spectroscopy and characterization techniques, such as Raman spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that MWCNT maintain their main features in the compacted pellets, such as integrity, original morphology, and structure, demonstrating that high-pressure/temperature compaction can indeed be used to fabricate novel CNT self-supported materials. Additionally, the specific surface area and porosity are unchanged, which is important when using bulk CNT in adsorption processes. Raman analysis of the G’-band showed a shift to lower wavenumbers when f-MWCNT were processed under high pressure, suggesting that CNT are under tensile stress.