Indexed on: 18 Aug '04Published on: 18 Aug '04Published in: Neurochemistry International
Mammalian circadian rhythms are generated by a hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) clock. Light pulses synchronize body rhythms by inducing phase delays during the early night and phase advances during the late night. Phosphorylation events are known to be involved in circadian phase shifting, both for delays and advances. Pharmacological inhibition of the cGMP-dependent kinase (cGK) or Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMK), or of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) blocks the circadian responses to light in vivo. Light pulses administered during the subjective night, but not during the day, induce rapid phosphorylation of both p-CAMKII and p-nNOS (specifically phosphorylated by CaMKII). CaMKII inhibitors block light-induced nNOS activity and phosphorylation, suggesting a direct pathway between both enzymes. Furthermore, SCN cGMP exhibits diurnal and circadian rhythms with maximal values during the day or subjective day. This variation of cGMP levels appears to be related to temporal changes in phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity and not to guanylyl cyclase (GC) activity. Light pulses increase SCN cGMP levels at circadian time (CT) 18 (when light causes phase advances of rhythms) but not at CT 14 (the time for light-induced phase delays). cGK II is expressed in the hamster SCN and also exhibits circadian changes in its levels, peaking during the day. Light pulses increase cGK activity at CT 18 but not at CT 14. In addition, cGK and GC inhibition by KT-5823 and ODQ significantly attenuated light-induced phase shifts at CT 18. This inhibition did not change c-Fos expression SCN but affected the expression of the clock gene per in the SCN. These results suggest a signal transduction pathway responsible for light-induced phase advances of the circadian clock which could be summarized as follows: Glu-Ca2+-CaMKII-nNOS-GC-cGMP-cGK-->-->clock genes. This pathway offers a signaling window that allows peering into the circadian clock machinery in order to decipher its temporal cogs and wheels.