Indexed on: 12 Jan '21Published on: 12 Jan '21Published in: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) have been associated with an increased risk of genitourinary tract infections. Through similar biological mechanisms, they may also increase the risk of community-acquired pneumonia. Our objective was to compare the rate of hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia (HCAP) with SGLT-2i compared to dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) among patients with type 2 diabetes. We used the United Kingdom's Clinical Practice Research Datalink Gold, linked to hospitalization data, to construct a cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes. Using a time-dependent Cox proportional hazards model, we estimated the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for HCAP with current use of SGLT-2i versus DPP-4i. Among 29 896 patients, 705 HCAPs occurred over a mean follow-up of 1.7 years (standard deviation: 1.2). Incidence rates for SGLT-2i and DPP-4i users were 6.2 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7, 10.2) and 17.8 (95% CI: 15.3, 20.7) per 1000 person-years, respectively. Current use of SGLT-2i was associated with a decreased risk of HCAP compared to current use of DPP-4i (adjusted HR: 0.48, 95% CI: 0.28, 0.82). However, a comparison of SGLT-2i versus glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) found no difference in risk of HCAP (adjusted HR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.44, 1.89). SGLT-2i are associated with a decreased rate of HCAP compared to DPP-4i, but not when compared to GLP-1 RA, among patients with type 2 diabetes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.